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Mosul ... few concerns

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Mosul ... few concerns

May-13-2001 at 02:41 AM (UTC+3 Nineveh, Assyria)

We list below, as examples, accounts connecting Assyrians and other titles like Nestorians, Jacobites and Christians to the city or province of Mosul in various periods in history. These among many more prove that the religious title Chaldean was NOT the only title used in and around Mosul. Historical facts indicate clearly that the religious title Chaldean was used after Catholicism began to spread first in the 17th century in Diyar Bakir region in Turkey and widely in the Mosul plain around the 19th century. One must admit that any reasonable person would not follow the exception in any issue rather the common, historical facts and the widely held view.
Let us start with this example. We all know that the Assyrian genocide did occur during WWI by the Turks since many different laity people (Assyrians and foreigners), government officials, foreign clergy, and publications had attested to it. If we ignore the factor that Turkey is the political ally of few governments and those governments could back up Turkey when needed and if we take the issue solely from a historical prospective, we know that the Turks would be alone in denying that the genocide ever happened. Now, if a foreign student, unaware of the Middle Eastern affairs, was to make a decision whether the genocide did occur or not and was given the opportunity to read all the various documentation regarding the issue, would he/she say YES, the genocide did happen because I read hundreds of documents proving it, or would he/she say NO, it did not happen because the Turks say so?
We are not dealing with emotions here since this is not a psychiatric clinic; this is a discussion forum where we deal with historical facts and commonsense. Few members of the Chaldean Catholic Church are dealing with the Chaldean controversy based solely on emotions. Mr. Ghassan Hanna had claimed lately that the Chaldean title alone was used in Mosul and its surrounding towns. He claims that the Nestorian or Assyrian titles were not connected to Mosul in recent history. He insists on using what one or two Arab historians, the exception and unusual, have said in that regard and he blocks what everybody else had said. We need not mention how some Arab historians rewrote, falsified and corrupted Assyrian history. To those who attended Iraqi schools understand very well what we are talking about.
At any rate, here are some quotes by French, British, Russian, Assyrian (from various churches but mainly from the Chaldean Catholic Church), and Jewish writers, which have associated titles like Christians, Assyrians, Nestorians and Jacobites to the city of Mosul, contrary to what Mr. Hanna claims.

1. The Assyrians (al-Ashouriyoon) after the fall of Nineveh / Hurmiz Aboona
From the preceding facts we can see that the country known as Adiabene, which constitute the important part of the old Ashur, was always occupied by Assyrians (Ashouriyeen). None others lived in it prior to the waves of occupation and massacres the region experienced between the 11th and 16th centuries And the home of the independent tribes is within Adiabene, which makes the middle parts of the Land of Ashur. (p. 8)

2. The Church of the East in the Plain of Nineveh / Habib Hanona
A. The majority of the Christians of Nineveh were Nestorians before the appearance of Catholicism there in mid 16th century. According to an old Chaldean Church chronicle, the Nestorians had in Mosul in AD 1408 one metropolitan, (4) bishops, (10) churches and their population inside the city included (9000) families (homes), and outside the city (8000) families (Homes). They owned (7) monasteries occupied by many monks. After three centuries the Nestorians became a minority and could not challenge Catholicism and its influence in Nineveh. This forced them in AD 1778 to leave the villages and the plains and seek the mountainous villages which remained attached to the old rite that Nestorious called for. (p. 38)

B. And because of the dismay of the Eastern Sect Nestorian from the Patriarchal heredity law, the congregation gathered in Mosul and elected a new Patriarch, Sulaqa son of Daniel Balo, head of Rabban Hurmiz monastery. They sent him to Rome to receive the Catholic profession of faith from Pope Julius III. Sulaqa was consecrated Patriarch in Rome on April 21, 1553 under the title Patriarch of Babil over the Chaldean. Those loyal to him and belonging to his church were called Chaldeans, the congregation of the eastern sect Nestorian who became Catholics. (p. 65)

3. Historica Monastica / Thomas of Marga (Aqra to upper Zab region), who lived in the 8th century refers to the city of Mosul as the city of the Assyrians (Ashouriyeen). Worth mentioning that after the decrease of the Christians in Adiabene (Arbil) the Episcopate was transferred to Nineveh and its bishop was called at times Head of bishops of Nineveh and at other times the Head of bishops of Ashur.

4. LOrient Syrien issue 10 / J. M. Fiey
The Christians who lived for generations in the land of Ashur, Kalah (Nimrud), and Nineveh have the right, more than anybody else, to be called Assyrians (Ashuriyeen) even though they are religiously known as Chaldeans and Sir-yan.

5. The Assyrians and the Assyrian Question / Q. B. Matfiev
While in Diyar Bakir, Urfa, Mardin, Nisibin and Mosul, lived the Jacobite Assyrians, who had their own elected patriarch
for instant, in Amadiya lived many Nestorian and Jacobite Assyrians who were obligated by slavery relation with the Kurdish Shaikhs, and complaints to the Turkish Government was a waste of time. Those who insisted on their complaint were reprimanded severely. (p. 58)

6. The Assyrians / Aziz B. Aziz
Then another move occurred in Mosul in 1830 when the Uniate Catholics of Mosul crowned another Patriarch for the Chaldean Catholic Church, Mar Youkhanna Hurmiz, Metropolitan of Mosul, different than the earlier Patriarch Mar Elia. If we pay attention to the fierce struggle between Nestorianism and Catholicism, which happened during the 17th and 18th centuries, we would realize that it was intended to subdue all the Assyrians under the Papal Crown. The Catholic missionaries used all means to achieve their goal. These missionaries were paying the Turkish Begs and Kurdish Shaikhs so they will destroy and erase any Assyrian artifacts in Churches and monasteries. They did so to break any ties, which linked present day Assyrians to those of the past, hence giving the picture that the history of the Assyrians was connected with the date they joined Catholicism, and the Roman Catholic succeeded. It was able to subdue under its control all Assyrians living northern Bet Nahrain Iraq and their name became Chaldeans and their Patriarch was titled Patriarch of Babil. (p. 122)

7. Mosul and its Minorities / Harry Charles Luke
Mosul: The living city
You find here, dwelling among the Arabs and the Kurdish majorities, a great variety of Christians: Nestorians and Jacobites, with their corresponding Uniate branches, Chaldeans and Syrian Catholics. (p. 14)

8. The Nestorian Churches / Aubrey Vine
Keep in mind that this book was published in 1937, so when the author says today it means during the 1930s.
The Jacobites were never so widely diffused as the Nestorians, and are represented today by a few small communities, mostly near Mosul, Mardin and Diarbekir. (p. 54)

the Patriarch Yeshuyab II (628-643) was said to have seem Muhammad in person, and to have received from him a document conferring special privileges upon Nestorians; the Caliph Umar I was asserted to have confirmed this; and the caliph Ali was said to have given them another letter of protection because they had given his army food at the siege of Mosul. (p. 89)

9. The British Betrayal of the Assyrians / Yusuf Malek - 1932
Kurds and Assyrians have been living in harmony in the Mosul Wilayet for years, and they could still live peacefully together, had it not been for the evil seed sown by the Arab Ministers and alleged politicians to cause friction and dissension between the two friendly elements. (p. 37)

10. Minorities in the Middle East / Mordechai Nisan - North Carolina, 1991
The Mosul massacres of 1959-1960 found the Assyrians, particularly in Tall Kayf, loyal to Kassem in his struggle against Nasserites insurrection. But the Bathist coup in 1963 forced many Christians to flee the North of Iraq. (p. 165)

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Assyria \ã-'sir-é-ä\ n (1998)   1:  an ancient empire of Ashur   2:  a democratic state in Bet-Nahren, Assyria (northern Iraq, northwestern Iran, southeastern Turkey and eastern Syria.)   3:  a democratic state that fosters the social and political rights to all of its inhabitants irrespective of their religion, race, or gender   4:  a democratic state that believes in the freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture in faithfulness to the principles of the United Nations Charter — Atour synonym

Ethnicity, Religion, Language
» Israeli, Jewish, Hebrew
» Assyrian, Christian, Aramaic
» Saudi Arabian, Muslim, Arabic
Assyrian \ã-'sir-é-an\ adj or n (1998)   1:  descendants of the ancient empire of Ashur   2:  the Assyrians, although representing but one single nation as the direct heirs of the ancient Assyrian Empire, are now doctrinally divided, inter sese, into five principle ecclesiastically designated religious sects with their corresponding hierarchies and distinct church governments, namely, Church of the East, Chaldean, Maronite, Syriac Orthodox and Syriac Catholic.  These formal divisions had their origin in the 5th century of the Christian Era.  No one can coherently understand the Assyrians as a whole until he can distinguish that which is religion or church from that which is nation -- a matter which is particularly difficult for the people from the western world to understand; for in the East, by force of circumstances beyond their control, religion has been made, from time immemorial, virtually into a criterion of nationality.   3:  the Assyrians have been referred to as Aramaean, Aramaye, Ashuraya, Ashureen, Ashuri, Ashuroyo, Assyrio-Chaldean, Aturaya, Chaldean, Chaldo, ChaldoAssyrian, ChaldoAssyrio, Jacobite, Kaldany, Kaldu, Kasdu, Malabar, Maronite, Maronaya, Nestorian, Nestornaye, Oromoye, Suraya, Syriac, Syrian, Syriani, Suryoye, Suryoyo and Telkeffee. — Assyrianism verb

Aramaic \ar-é-'máik\ n (1998)   1:  a Semitic language which became the lingua franca of the Middle East during the ancient Assyrian empire.   2:  has been referred to as Neo-Aramaic, Neo-Syriac, Classical Syriac, Syriac, Suryoyo, Swadaya and Turoyo.

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