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Thirty (30) quotes: Modern Chaldeans are Catholic Assyrians

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Thirty (30) quotes: Modern Chaldeans are Catholic Assyrians

Jan-26-2002 at 09:31 PM (UTC+3 Nineveh, Assyria)

I hope these 30 quotes by various scholars, historians, clergy and common writers will convince those still in doubt about the fact that modern-day Chaldeans are simply Catholic Assyrians.

1. (A) <b>"The Near East in History: A 5000 Years Story" by Philip K. Hitti.</b>

One tangible result was the creation of the two Uniat communities: the Armenian Catholic Church, split from the Gregorian, and the Chaldean, split from the East Syrian Church or Nestorian.

1. (B) <b>"The Near East in History: A 5000 Years Story" by Philip K. Hitti</b>

Latin missionary work in Persia and Syria, among Nestorians, Armenians, and Jacobites naturally affected Christian Iraqis. As early as 1663 a Syrian Uniat Church was organized and later (1830) recognized by the Porte. Another Uniat community, the Chaldean, was established in 1552; its patriarch of Babylon chose Mosul for his residence.

2. <b> "The Mandaeans" by Prof. Edmondo Lupieri.</b>

"Today the term Chaldean means only the Syriac-speaking Christians, originally Nestorians, converted to Catholicism since the 16th century."

3. <b>"The political Dictionary of Modern Middle East" by University Press of America, 1995. </b>

Assyrians: Remnants of the people of the ancient Mesopotamia, succeeding the Sumero-Akkadians and the Babylonians as one continuous civilization. They are among the first nations who accepted Christianity. They belong to one of the four churches: the Chaldean Uniat, the Syrian Orthodox Church, the Syrian Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East. Due to the ethnic-political conflict in the Middle East, they are better known by these ecclesiastical designation. The Assyrians use classical Syriac in their liturgies while the majority of them speak and write a modern dialect of this language. They constitute the third largest ethnic group in Iraq with their communities in Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Iran, Russia and Armenia. Today they remain stateless and great numbers of them left their homeland and settled in Western Europe, the United States and Australia.

4. <b> Minorities in the Middle East by Mordechai Nisan. </b>

Here is this passage, the author speaks of Tall Kayf, the heart of the Catholic Assyrians, aka Chaldeans, but he calls them rightly Assyrians.
The Mosul massacres of 1959-1960 found the Assyrians, particularly in Tall Kayf, loyal to Kassem in his struggle against Nasserites insurrection. But the Bathist coup in 1963 forced many Christians to flee the North of Iraq.

5. <b>Arabs and Christians? Christians in the Middle East by Antonie Wessels. </b>

In 1551, the Assyrian community refused to accept the appointment of Shimun VII Denka as Patriarch of the Church of the East. They sent a monk, Youhanna Sulaqa, to Rome, where he was appointed Patriarch of Babylon and head of the first church in the Middle East to unite with Rome. While the name Assyrian refers to an ethnic identity, the name Chaldean refers to the (Catholic) rite. He later died as a martyr in Diyarbekr (Eastern Turkey) at the hands of the anti-Catholic community.

In 1672 more than a century after the failure of Patriarch Sulaqa to effect the return of the Nestorians, a separate Chaldean rite was organized.

6. <b>Aqaliyat shimal al-Araq; bayna al-qanoon wa al-siyasa (Northern Iraq Minorities; between Law and Politics) by Dr. Jameel Meekha Shiyooka. </b>

The Assyrians themselves are broken into Nestorians (not connected to Rome or the Catholic Church and are the minority) and are members of the Assyrian Church of the East, and besides the Nestorians there are the Chaldeans, a majority who came out from the Nestorians and are connected with the Catholic Church in Rome. (a translation from Arabic)

7. <b>Asshur and the Land of Nimrod by Hormuzd Rassam. </b>

A difficulty now arose; the new converts styled themselves 'Sooraye' and 'Nestornaye' . The Romanists could not call them 'Catholic Syrians' or 'Syrian Catholics' for this appellation they had already given to their proselytes from the Jacobites, who also called themselves 'Syrians'. They could not term them 'Catholic Nestorians,' as Mr. Justin Perkins, the independent American missionary does, for this would involve a contradiction. What more natural, then, than that they should have applied to them the title of 'Chaldeans' to which they had some claims of nationality, in virtue of their Assyrian Descent.

8. <b> The Eastern Christian Churches by Ronald Roberson. </b>

In 1552, when the new patriarch was elected, a group of Assyrian bishops refused to accept him and decided to seek union with Rome. They elected the reluctant abbot of a monastery, Yuhannan Sulaqa, as their own patriarch and sent him to Rome to arrange a union with the Catholic Church. In early 1553 Pope Julius III proclaimed him Patriarch Simon VIII of the Chaldeans and ordained him a bishop in St. Peters Basilica on April 9, 1553.
The new Patriarch returned to his homeland in late 1553 and began to initiate a series of reforms. But opposition, led by the rival Assyrian Patriarch, was strong. Simon was soon captured by the pasha of Amadiya, tortured and executed in January 1555. Eventually Sulaqas group returned to the Assyrian Church of the East, but for over 200 years, there was much turmoil and changing of sides as the pro- and anti-Catholic parties struggled with one another. The situation finally stabilized on July 5, 1830, when Pope Pius VIII confirmed Metropolitan Youhanna (John) Hormizd as head of all Chaldean Catholics, with the title of Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans, with his see in Mosul.

9. <b> The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church by F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone. </b>

Chaldean Christians.

The convenient, if not very appropriate, title applied to that part of the Church of the East in communion with the see of Rome. They fall into two main groups, those of the Middle East (esp. Iraq), and those of Malabar . As a result of dispute over succession within the Middle Eastern group, a separate line of Uniat Patriarchs came into existence in 1553, when Simeon Sulaqa was consecrated in Rome after submitting his profession of faith to Pope Julius III. Over the next three centuries, difficulties of communication gave rise to problems. The Sulaqa line (normally with the name Simeon) remained in communion with Rome until 1672, while members of the other line (with the name Elias) briefly entered communion with Rome on several occasions. In 1681 a new Uniat line of Patriarchs at Diyarbekr was inaugurated (with the name of Joseph), to last for well over a century. In 1830 affairs were regularized and the Uniat Patriarchate was again restored, now at Baghdad, with the title of Babylon. The customs and discipline of the Chaldeans have been partially assimilated to those of the Latin rite, and they follow the Gregorian calendar. Syriac liturgical tradition and languages are, however, retained. In the Middle East the Chaldeans are said to number c. 800,000. For the Indian group, see Malabar Christians.

10. <b> Christianity in the Arab World by El Hassan Bin Talal, Crown Prince of Jordan. </b>

Attending the Council of Florence <1444>, alongside the representative of the Jacobite patriarch Bahnam al-Hadli, were representatives of the Cyprus branch of the Nestorian Church, whose principle base was still in Iraq. These Nestorians, like the Jacobite patriarch, were persuaded to adopt the Roman Catholic confession and declare allgiance to Roman papacy, whereupon they came to be called the Chaldeans (as distinct from the Nestorians who refused to unite with Rome...

Subsequently, in 1551, Pope Julius III appointed a leading Catholic Nestorian, John Sulaka, as first patriach of his Uniate church. The successors of Sulaka later adopted the title of patriarch-catholicos of Babylon and the Chaldeans.

11. <b> The Middle East A Physical, Social and Regional Geography by W. B. Fisher. </b>

During periods of Moslem persecution, the autonomous Chistian sects of the east obtained support from the Church of Rome, but often at the price of obedience to Rome. Agreements were made whereby in return for recognition of the Pope as head of the community, local usages in doctrine and ritual were permitted to continue. Hence a number of eastern Christians broke away from sects such as the Jacobites or Nestorians, and formed what are known as the Uniate Churches--i.e. Communities with practices that differ widely from those of the main Roman Church, but which nevertheless accept the supremacy of the Pope. There have thus come into existence the Armenian Catholic, the Greek Catholic, the Syrian Catholic, the Coptic Catholic, and the Chaldean (Nestorian) Catholic Churches.

12. <b>The Catholic Encyclopedia </b> is very clear in defining Chaldeans as a Christian denomination of the Eastern Church, since it states;

Chaldeans: The name of former Nestorians now reunited with the Roman Church. Ethnologically they are divided into two groups , which must be treated apart, since in their vicissitudes one group differs considerably from the other. The first group is usually known as Chaldeans, the second as Christians of St. Thomas .

13. <b> History of Syria by Dr. Philip Hitti, professor of Semitic literature at Princeton University. </b>

Before the rise of Islam the Syrian Christian Church had split into several communities. There was first the East Syrian Church or the Church of the East. This communion, established in the late second century, claims uninterrupted descent in its teachings, liturgy, consecration and tradition from the time the Edessene King Abgar allegedly wrote to Christ asking him to relieve him of an incurable disease and Christ promised to send him one of his disciples after his ascension. This is the church erroneously called Nestorian, after the Cilician Nestorius, whom it antedates by about two and a half centuries. The term Nestorian was applied to it at a late date by Roman Catholics to convey the stigma of heresy in contradistinction to those of its members who joined the Catholic Church as Uniats and received the name Chaldeans.

14. <b> The Assyrians and their Neighbors by Rev. W. A. Wigram. </b>

Facts are too that the first time a Patriarch was associated with the word Chaldean was Mar Youhannan Hurmizd who was called by Pope Pius XIII in 1828 Patriarch of Babil over the Chaldean Rite in which the Church became definitely Papal in its obedience as one of the Uniate Churches of the East. And the first to be called the Chaldean Patriarch was Mar Nicolas Zaia in 1844 and later the word Babil was added in 1847 when Mar Yousif Odo was consecrated as Patriarch of Babil over the Chaldean.

15. <b> The Chaldeans of today and their relation to the Chaldeans of yesterday by Dr. Bahnam Abu al-Soof, Professor of Archaeology in Baghdad University. </b>

All the inhabitants of the villages which are called Chaldean--TelKeif, Alqosh, Batnaya, Telesqoof, Karamles, Qaraqoush, and othersno connection with the Chaldeans of antiquity. Todays Chaldean term is new to us, it came from the west, and from Rome precisely. You people, the inhabitants of the above mentioned villages are originally Assyrians, descendants of the Assyrians of antiquity. I, for example, was born in Mosul, and belong to the Chaldean Church, yet I am Assyrian and we all are Assyrians, being Syrians, Chaldeans, or Maronites.

16. <b> The British Betrayal of the Assyrians by Yousuf Malek. </b>

The Assyrians, although representing but one single nation as the direct heirs of the ancient Assyrian Empire as indicated in chapter 1, are now doctrinally divided, inter sese, into five principle ecclesiastically designated religious sects with their corresponding hierarchies and distinct church governments, namely, Nestorian, Jacobite, Chaldean, Maronite and Syrian Catholic

17. <b> Reasons for the backwardness of the Assyrians by Professor Ashur Yousuf, member of the Syrian Orthodox Church, published on October 20, 1914. </b>

The hindrance to the development of the Assyrians was not so much the attacks from without as it was from within--the doctrinal and sectarian disputes and struggles like monophysitism and dyophsitism is a good example. These caused division, spiritually and nationally, among the people who quarreled among themselves even to the point of shedding blood. To this very day the Assyrians are still known by various names, such as Nestorians, Jacobites, Chaldeans

18. <b> Iraq: A Country Study, Edited by Helen Chapin Metz. </b>

The Assyrians are considered to be the third largest ethnic minority in Iraq. Although official Iraqi statistics do not refer to them as an ethnic group, they are believed to represent about 133,000 persons, or less than 1 percent of the population. Descendants of ancient Mesopotamian peoples, they speak Aramaic. The Assyrians live mainly in the major cities and in the rural areas of northeastern Iraq, where they tend to be professionals and businessmen or independent farmers. They are Christians, belonging to one of four churches: the Chaldean (Uniate), the Nestorian, the Jacobite or Syrian Orthodox, and the Syrian Catholic.

19. <b> Kanisat al-Mashriq fi Sahil Naynawa (The Church of the East in the Plain of Nineveh) by Habib Hannona. </b>

The author mentioned that the title Chaldean was given by the Pope, to those so called Nestorians of Cyprus who united with the Roman Church, in August 7th, 1445. He says that in April 21st, 1553, Sulaqa went to Rome and was elected Patriarch of Babil over the Chaldeans and settled in Diar Bakir. The begining of the Catholic missionaries, says the author, started in 1725 in Nineveh Plain where almost all were Nestorians before this date.

20. <b> The Luck of Nineveh: In Search of the Lost Assyrian Empire, by Arnold C. Brackman. </b>

A. "Among Mosuls fifty thousand citizens were Moslems, Jews, and members of various Christian sects. The Christians were largely Jacobites, Papal Syrians, and Chaldeans, as Nestorian converts to Roman Catholicism were then called."
B. "In September, accompanied by Rassams youngest brother Hormuzd, Layard left for the Tiyari Mountains, a district inhabited by the Nestorians or Chaldean Christians, who claimed to be the nearest descendants of the ancient Assyrians."

21. <b> A History of the Arab Peoples, by Albert Hourani. </b>

The well-known historian Albert Hourani spoke about the Christians during the 12th Centuery in Syria and northern Iraq. He clearly, and rightly so, attested to the fact that there were no such people known as Chaldeans and there was no Chaldean Church in north of Iraq during the 12th century. Because this title was applied by the Pope in the 15th century in Cyprus, in the 16th century in Diyar Bakir, and in 1830 in Mosul. He clearly mentioned Monophysites (Jacobites) and the Nestorians only. He stated, quote: All over Syria and in northern Iraq Christians communities remained, although in a diminished form. Some, mainly in the cities, belonged to the Eastern Orthodox Church, but others were members of those other churches which have their origins in the controversies about the nature of Christ: the Syrian Orthodox or Monophysites, and the Nestorians. unquote.

22. <b> LOrient Syrien issue 10 by J. M. Fiey. </b>

The Christians who lived for generations in the land of Ashur, Kalah (Nimrud), and Nineveh have the right, more than anybody else, to be called Assyrians (Ashuriyeen) even though they are religiously known as Chaldeans and Sir-yan.

23. <b> Mosul and its Minorities by Harry Charles Luke. </b>

Mosul: The living city
You find here, dwelling among the Arabs and the Kurdish majorities, a great variety of Christians: Nestorians and Jacobites, with their corresponding Uniate branches, Chaldeans and Syrian Catholics.

24. <b> The late Fr. Dr. Yousif Habbi of the Chaldean Catholic Church / booklet consisting of (56) pages about the Rabban Hurmizd Monastery. </b>

From the Arabic section of the booklet we read under the sub-title From the 16th century to 1808: In early 1552, bishops and the party opposing to Patriarch Shimun bar Mama, elected the Monk Youkhana Sulaqa Ballu, a superior of Rabban Hurmizd Monastery, a new patriarch for them, ending a tradition of hereditary succession of patriarchs from uncle to nephew and putting an end to the unrest present those days in the church . In Rome, Sulaqa was consecrated as the first patriarch over the Catholic followers of the Church of the East on February 20th, 1553, and they were called Chaldeans.

25. <b> "Qaryaneh Jobyeh" published in 1906 by Mar Toma Audo, the Catholic Bishop. </b>

On page 168 Mar Toma Audo stated that after the fall of Babylon the Chaldeans mixed with the Persians, Elamites, and then with Arabs and they were assimilated COMPLETELY, in to these and other surrounding peoples. And he wrote in defence of the Assyrian name: "We in fact call ourselves generally "Surayeh" and not Suryayeh as some learned among us say. And it is abvious that "Suraya" is derived from "Atouraya" (Athouraya) as the "A" was dropped and the "T" (th) softened to an "S" as it has been customary in many places. For example, in Sina and Seert they pronounce the softened "T" as "S" and they say "meesa" instead of "meeta" (meetha) and "Alahosa" instead of "Alahota" (Alahotha) . Even in Urmia they say "Asas al-Bait" instead of "athath al-Bait" and "'Ausman" instead of "'Autman".

26. <b> "The Modern History of the Kurds" by David McDowall. </b>

Each Eastern Church in turn was rent by schism, as one part abandoned its independence in favor of union with a powerful sponsor. In the case of the new Chaldean, Armenian and Syrian Catholic Churches the impact was to be seen with the arrival of Catholic missionaries and teachers. The Protestants, not to be left out, soon set to work on the old churches, hoping to bring the communities to a 'better' understanding of the faith.
The Chaldeans had walked out of the Nestorian Church as early as 1681 in order to enter into union with Rome. In Kurdistan a sharp and enduring conflict was unleashed between the old and new churches, with both playing hard for Ottoman approval. In 1716 the Orthodox (Melkite) Church, in 1740 the Armenian Church, and in 1781 the Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite) Church were rent by similar schisms."

27. <b> The Nestorians and their Rituals by Percy George Badger. </b>

The origin of the term Chaldean as applied to a Christian sect, is correctly given in the following extract from Smith and Dwights Researches in Armenia:The present Chaldean Christians are of recent origin. It was in AD 1681, that the Nestorian Metropolitan of Diarbekir, having quarrelled with his patriarch, was first consecrated by the Pope patriarch of the Chaldeans. The sect was as new as the office, and created for it. Converts to papacy from the Nestorian and Jacobite churches were united in one body, and dignified by the name of the Chaldean Church. It means no more than Papal Syrians as we have in other parts Papal Armenians and Papal Greeks.

28. <b> Aqaliyat fi sharq al-mutawasit (Minorities East of the Mediterranean) by Faiz Sara. </b>

Many vary on calling the Ashuriyeen (Assyrians), who are the most ancient peoples in the region and numerous titles are present including Athouriyeen (Atourayeh). Few refer to the Chaldeans or Nestorians, and at times al-Siryan too, as Ashuriyeen (Assyrians). All these names refer to one title Ashuriyeen (Assyrian) whose various titles were mentioned in historical and religious sources.

29. <b> Fi Al-Asil wa Al-Fasil wa Mulahadat Ukhra (Roots, Classifications, and Other Remarks) by Dr. Saadi Al-Malih. </b>

"Lets get back again to the names given to this nation of Al-Ashuriyon, Al-Siryan, Nestorians, Catholics, Christians and now Chaldeans, they all were fabricated to indicate this nations religious belief since groups of Assyrians switched their religious beliefs so many times."

30. <b> The Political Dictionary of the Modern Middle East, by Agnes G. Korbani. </b>

Assyrians: Remnants of the people of ancient Mesopotamia, succeeding the Sumero-Akkadians and the Babylonians as one continuous civilization. They are among the first nations who accepted Christianity. They belong to one of the four churches: the Chaldean Uniate, the Syrian Orthodox Church, the Syrian Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East. Due to the ethnic-political conflict in the Middle East, they are better known by these ecclesiastical designations.

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Assyria \ã-'sir-é-ä\ n (1998)   1:  an ancient empire of Ashur   2:  a democratic state in Bet-Nahren, Assyria (northern Iraq, northwestern Iran, southeastern Turkey and eastern Syria.)   3:  a democratic state that fosters the social and political rights to all of its inhabitants irrespective of their religion, race, or gender   4:  a democratic state that believes in the freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture in faithfulness to the principles of the United Nations Charter — Atour synonym

Ethnicity, Religion, Language
» Israeli, Jewish, Hebrew
» Assyrian, Christian, Aramaic
» Saudi Arabian, Muslim, Arabic
Assyrian \ã-'sir-é-an\ adj or n (1998)   1:  descendants of the ancient empire of Ashur   2:  the Assyrians, although representing but one single nation as the direct heirs of the ancient Assyrian Empire, are now doctrinally divided, inter sese, into five principle ecclesiastically designated religious sects with their corresponding hierarchies and distinct church governments, namely, Church of the East, Chaldean, Maronite, Syriac Orthodox and Syriac Catholic.  These formal divisions had their origin in the 5th century of the Christian Era.  No one can coherently understand the Assyrians as a whole until he can distinguish that which is religion or church from that which is nation -- a matter which is particularly difficult for the people from the western world to understand; for in the East, by force of circumstances beyond their control, religion has been made, from time immemorial, virtually into a criterion of nationality.   3:  the Assyrians have been referred to as Aramaean, Aramaye, Ashuraya, Ashureen, Ashuri, Ashuroyo, Assyrio-Chaldean, Aturaya, Chaldean, Chaldo, ChaldoAssyrian, ChaldoAssyrio, Jacobite, Kaldany, Kaldu, Kasdu, Malabar, Maronite, Maronaya, Nestorian, Nestornaye, Oromoye, Suraya, Syriac, Syrian, Syriani, Suryoye, Suryoyo and Telkeffee. — Assyrianism verb

Aramaic \ar-é-'máik\ n (1998)   1:  a Semitic language which became the lingua franca of the Middle East during the ancient Assyrian empire.   2:  has been referred to as Neo-Aramaic, Neo-Syriac, Classical Syriac, Syriac, Suryoyo, Swadaya and Turoyo.

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