Assyrian Forums
 Home  |  Ads  |  Partners  |  Sponsors  |  Contact  |  FAQs  |  About  
 
   Holocaust  |  History  |  Library  |  People  |  TV-Radio  |  Forums  |  Community  |  Directory
  
   General  |  Activism  |  Arts  |  Education  |  Family  |  Financial  |  Government  |  Health  |  History  |  News  |  Religion  |  Science  |  Sports
   Greetings · Shläma · Bärev Dzez · Säludos · Grüße · Shälom · Χαιρετισμοί · Приветствия · 问候 · Bonjour · 挨拶 · تبریکات  · Selamlar · अभिवादन · Groete · التّحيّات

The Crimean War

    Previous Topic Next Topic
Home Forums Education Topic #73
Help Print Share

Fred Aprimmoderator

View member rating
 
Send email to Fred AprimSend private message to Fred AprimView profile of Fred AprimAdd Fred Aprim to your contact list
 
Member: Nov-10-1999
Posts: 150
1 feedbacks

The Crimean War

Nov-08-2000 at 11:54 PM (UTC+3 Nineveh, Assyria)

The Crimean War and its impact on Assyrians

The Crimean War was fought from October 1853 until February 1856 between the Russians on one side and the British, French and Ottoman Turks on the other. The direct cause of the war was the Russians claim to exercise protection over the Orthodox Christians who were subjects of the Ottoman sultan, and a dispute between Russia and France over Russian Orthodox and Roman Catholic monks at the holy places in Palestine.

During the Crimean War, and the Russian-Turkish War from 1876-1878, the Turks had European allies who fought with them against Russia. The Russians saw in the Crimean War a breach of Christian European solidarityin particular on the part of France and England. The Roman Catholic Bishop of France, representing the position of the Vatican, expressed sanctioned Frances part in the war. The Crimean War was then sanctified as a crusade against the heresy of Photius, the Byzantine Patriarch who in 863 had been condemned by the pope. Keep in mind that the Church and its Patriarchate at Constantinople has broken away from Rome because of the great schism of 1054. Pope Urbanus II (1089-1099) issued the call in Clermont Ferrant (France) for what would become the 1st crusade. In 1098 the crusaders occupied Antioch, and instituted a Latin hierarchy there. The break between East and West of 1054 was definitely fixed in the 4th crusade (1202-1204), when Constantinople was occupied by the crusaders and plundered. Hence the subjection of the church in the East was in line with the wish of the pope.

As soon as France was recognized by the sultan as the protector of his Roman Catholic subjects, the Russian Tsar sent an emissary to Constantinople in February 1853 in order to demand guardianship over all the Orthodox Christians under the Turkish sultan. When Turkey did not accede to the Russian request, Tsar Nicolas I (1796-1855) occupied in reprisal in June 1853 the Danube principalities of Walachia and Moldavia, ruled by the Ottoman Turks. Turkey declared war on Russia on October 23, 1853. And on March 27, 1854, France and England in turn declared war on Russia. It was not until after the fall of Sevastopel in September 10, 1855, that Russia accepted provisional terms for surrender on February 1, 1856. And on March 30, 1856, the so-called Treaty of Paris was signed, in which the integrity of the Ottoman Empire was guaranteed.

It is said that the Crimean War and the Treaty of Paris were the decisive turning point for the eastern Christianity in the Middle East. The defeat of the Russian Army in the Crimean War meant the dominance of the Western French-English alliance throughout the Ottoman Empire. Roman Catholic Church backed by the French power enjoyed greater authority over the Christians and began its rapid expansion throughout the Ottoman Empire using all feasible methods, monetary, force, and persuasion converting already Christians and churches to Catholicism.

Alert   IP Print   Edit        Reply      Re-Quote Top

Forums Topics  Previous Topic Next Topic


Assyria \ã-'sir-é-ä\ n (1998)   1:  an ancient empire of Ashur   2:  a democratic state in Bet-Nahren, Assyria (northern Iraq, northwestern Iran, southeastern Turkey and eastern Syria.)   3:  a democratic state that fosters the social and political rights to all of its inhabitants irrespective of their religion, race, or gender   4:  a democratic state that believes in the freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture in faithfulness to the principles of the United Nations Charter — Atour synonym

Ethnicity, Religion, Language
» Israeli, Jewish, Hebrew
» Assyrian, Christian, Aramaic
» Saudi Arabian, Muslim, Arabic
Assyrian \ã-'sir-é-an\ adj or n (1998)   1:  descendants of the ancient empire of Ashur   2:  the Assyrians, although representing but one single nation as the direct heirs of the ancient Assyrian Empire, are now doctrinally divided, inter sese, into five principle ecclesiastically designated religious sects with their corresponding hierarchies and distinct church governments, namely, Church of the East, Chaldean, Maronite, Syriac Orthodox and Syriac Catholic.  These formal divisions had their origin in the 5th century of the Christian Era.  No one can coherently understand the Assyrians as a whole until he can distinguish that which is religion or church from that which is nation -- a matter which is particularly difficult for the people from the western world to understand; for in the East, by force of circumstances beyond their control, religion has been made, from time immemorial, virtually into a criterion of nationality.   3:  the Assyrians have been referred to as Aramaean, Aramaye, Ashuraya, Ashureen, Ashuri, Ashuroyo, Assyrio-Chaldean, Aturaya, Chaldean, Chaldo, ChaldoAssyrian, ChaldoAssyrio, Jacobite, Kaldany, Kaldu, Kasdu, Malabar, Maronite, Maronaya, Nestorian, Nestornaye, Oromoye, Suraya, Syriac, Syrian, Syriani, Suryoye, Suryoyo and Telkeffee. — Assyrianism verb

Aramaic \ar-é-'máik\ n (1998)   1:  a Semitic language which became the lingua franca of the Middle East during the ancient Assyrian empire.   2:  has been referred to as Neo-Aramaic, Neo-Syriac, Classical Syriac, Syriac, Suryoyo, Swadaya and Turoyo.

Please consider the environment when disposing of this material — read, reuse, recycle. ♻
AIM | Atour: The State of Assyria | Terms of Service