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Romans 2:2

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Romans 2:2

Jun-19-2001 at 12:15 PM (UTC+3 Nineveh, Assyria)

Shlama l'kulhon,

In Western languages, there is a preference to construct sentences which are complete in thought and which contain an independent idea.

In Semitic languages (particularly, Aramaic) there is a tendency to string multiple clauses together with the simple "and."

The Proclitic w usually serves this purpose.

Sometimes, this proclitic is not translated because the repetitive "and..and...and.." becomes hard on the Western ear - a sort of barbaric redundancy, so to say.

"And he said this or that.....and they turned around....and the morning came....and...and...and."

In addition to completely ignoring it, other options available to the translator include rendering it differently in order to give the impression that more variety exists in the story than just a bunch of facts strung together by "..and.."

So sometimes we see this Proclitic translated as "For", sometimes as "Now", other times as "But" depending on the context. I have done it myself in the English translation in the Interlinear - look for it. Other times, I have chosen not to even translate it - or maybe just put it in angle brackets (indicating it is superfluous in English.)

In Romans 2:2 - we find evidence of the same practice by the Greek translators of this original Aramaic document.

In the Aramaic of the Peshitta, we read:

0hl0d hnyd Yhwty0d Nny9dyw (and we know that the judgement of God...)

Check out the various ways the various Greek manuscripts read for this verse:

Those that dropped it completely include 1906

Those that translate it as "for" include S, C, 33, Latin Vulgate, Coptic

Those that translate it as "now" include A, B, D, G, K, P, Psi, 81, 104, 614, 630, 1241, 1739, 1881, 2495


Fk^rwbw 0ml4

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Assyria \ã-'sir-é-ä\ n (1998)   1:  an ancient empire of Ashur   2:  a democratic state in Bet-Nahren, Assyria (northern Iraq, northwestern Iran, southeastern Turkey and eastern Syria.)   3:  a democratic state that fosters the social and political rights to all of its inhabitants irrespective of their religion, race, or gender   4:  a democratic state that believes in the freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture in faithfulness to the principles of the United Nations Charter — Atour synonym

Ethnicity, Religion, Language
» Israeli, Jewish, Hebrew
» Assyrian, Christian, Aramaic
» Saudi Arabian, Muslim, Arabic
Assyrian \ã-'sir-é-an\ adj or n (1998)   1:  descendants of the ancient empire of Ashur   2:  the Assyrians, although representing but one single nation as the direct heirs of the ancient Assyrian Empire, are now doctrinally divided, inter sese, into five principle ecclesiastically designated religious sects with their corresponding hierarchies and distinct church governments, namely, Church of the East, Chaldean, Maronite, Syriac Orthodox and Syriac Catholic.  These formal divisions had their origin in the 5th century of the Christian Era.  No one can coherently understand the Assyrians as a whole until he can distinguish that which is religion or church from that which is nation -- a matter which is particularly difficult for the people from the western world to understand; for in the East, by force of circumstances beyond their control, religion has been made, from time immemorial, virtually into a criterion of nationality.   3:  the Assyrians have been referred to as Aramaean, Aramaye, Ashuraya, Ashureen, Ashuri, Ashuroyo, Assyrio-Chaldean, Aturaya, Chaldean, Chaldo, ChaldoAssyrian, ChaldoAssyrio, Jacobite, Kaldany, Kaldu, Kasdu, Malabar, Maronite, Maronaya, Nestorian, Nestornaye, Oromoye, Suraya, Syriac, Syrian, Syriani, Suryoye, Suryoyo and Telkeffee. — Assyrianism verb

Aramaic \ar-é-'máik\ n (1998)   1:  a Semitic language which became the lingua franca of the Middle East during the ancient Assyrian empire.   2:  has been referred to as Neo-Aramaic, Neo-Syriac, Classical Syriac, Syriac, Suryoyo, Swadaya and Turoyo.

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