Assyrian Government Network

The Assyrian Manifesto

Posted: Tuesday, February 17, 2004 at 07:21 PM CT


— Ivan Kakovitch

ASSYRIAN MANIFESTO

D E C L A R A T I 0 N

In order to attain our goal and eventually meet our national aspirations within the framework of international law and without cultivating enmity and harboring opposition of any kind, from any government, in particular the Government of the Iraqi Arab Republic in relation to our justifiable claims and demands for a long-delayed act from its part, which is that of endeavoring the granting of THE AUTONOMOUS ASSYRIAN STATE in the Vilayat (Province) of Mossoul, Iraq, our sole duty is to enact a constitutional bylaws, which would allow us to proceed in formation of organizational governing, administrative, executive and functional departments of self-rule and operation of all Assyrians throughout the world.

This step is a must since self-government capabilities are prima facial requirements for seeking autonomy or independence.

“...Nations or States or political bodies; societies of men united together for the purpose of promoting their mutual safety and advantage by the joint efforts of other combined strength.”

“... Such a society has her affairs and her Interests, she deliberates end takes resolution In common; thus becoming a moral person who possesses an understanding and a will peculiar to herself, and is susceptible of Obligations and Rights...”
[Emerich de vattel "Law of Nations" (pp. IV)]

Hence.

The Preliminary Draft of Statute of Limitations of Establishment of INTERNATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF ASSYRIAN NATION (I.C.A.N.)

Is not only imperative but essential.

I. RIGHTS OF NATIONALISM

Does an Assyrian have the right to claim Nationality?

Before answering this question let us determine what is “Right” and what is “Nationality”.

“For, the Right" being nothing more than the power of doing what is morally possible, that is to say, what is proper and consistent with “Duty” -- it is evident that “Right” is derived from Duty, or passive obligation - the obligation we lie under to act in such manner. It is therefore necessary that a Nation should acquire a knowledge of the Obligations incumbent on her, in order that she may not only avoid all violation of her Duty, but also be able distinctly to ascertain her “Rights”, or what she may lawfully require from other nations.” [Circa IV, Law of Nations]

“Right” is Justice, and consequently Justice is Liberty or Freedom.

“Freedom is always freedom from something, and where a freedom is not conceived as the opposite of restraint, it is meaningless.” [Georges Simmel]

“The claim of nationality is to the right of a local group of men to pursue happiness together, with their own ways of control to secure equality among them. Fraternal feeling is not easy of attainment unless you have been brought up together hence the part played by history in the national sentiment.”

“...The claim of nationality is to the right of a local group of men to pursue happiness together, with their own ways of control to secure equality among them. Fraternal feeling is not easy of attainment unless you have been brought up together hence the part played by history in the national sentiment.” [Halford J. Mackinder]

And yet:

“...A man seeks, not merely economic advantage, but also power, leisure, adventure, continuity of experience and security, he is concerned with his family, the familiar values of his regional and national culture and a bit of fun down at the local level. And beyond these diverse homely attachments, man is also capable of being moved by a sense of connection with human beings everywhere who, he recognizes, share his paradoxical condition.” [Walt Whitman Rostow]

II. GROUNDS FOR CLAIMING AUTONOMY

(The following excerpts are extractions from “The Bees. Their Honey and The World” by Ivan Kokovitch - published 1970, University Press, Teheran, Iran - pp. 52-84).

CHARTERED CONSTITUTION OF I.C.A.N. 12

All references dealing with this subject are exact extractions from court proceedings and related activities taken into debates by international lawyers and jurists, as well as deliberations of Special Commission's Reports concerning “The Assyrian Dilemma,” which was the principal issue, and which remained insoluble for a period of eight years, facing the League of Nations between the years of 1925 through 1933.

I. IRAQ vs. ASSYRIAN POPULATION

In 1933, the Iraqi government organized an expedition which burned some twenty Assyrian villages, massacring their inhabitants. No Arab voice was raised in protest against this ruthlessness, and the commander of the expedition, Colonel Bekr-Sidki, earned a reputation as a national hero, young King Ghazi promptly promoting him to a higher rank, The League of Nations did not anticipate the debate of the massacre in its conferences of peace officially, on the basis that the expedition was nothing but a punitive one. The members of the League of Nations were convinced that the Iraqi Royal Government had sent its troops to punish the Assyrians who, while trying to return to Iraq from Syria, shot and killed Iraqi soldiers who opposed them at the Iraqi frontier posts, and then crossed the border.

After the assassination of Mar-Shimon, their secular leader by the organizers and hosts to the peace conference table - to which he was invited for peaceful negotiations - the Assyrians headed North, where Tsar Nicolai 11 had promised them a haven among Christians of Russia. It was during this migration that the British authorities encouraged them to change their course and to go West, to Iraq, where the British government, being Anglican, would protect them from any invasion of Moslems Iraq, then a British Mandate was chosen as residence for about 250,000 landless. leaderless, and homeless peoples. Kirkuk and Mossoul, now populated largely by a Kurd and Arab majority, were the new residence for the Assyrians who joined other remnants of the Ancient Empire of Assyria and Babylonia still living in or around the above-mentioned cities.

Tension increased when the Assyrian Patriarchal Regency asked for restoration of the “Millat System” (National Autonomy) which would give greater autonomy to her coreligionists. Matters came to a head when, in 1933, a desperate group of Assyrians crossed from Iraq to Syria in search of some more promising heaven, after their massacre by the armed bands in Mossoul which was the product of the Peace Conference in Geneva in its session of July 16, 1925 and Its favorable doctor*" toward the Assyrians during the debate known as “THE QUESTION OF MOSSOUL.”

B. CAUSES OF MIGRATION

They had crossed Iraq en route to Lebanon for some more promising heaven, only to find that the French mandatory authorities were determined to prevent their infiltration, by force, it necessary. This was. caused by the Arab Nationalists of Lebanon, who did not wish to see a single Christian entering this divided province between Moslems and Christians, and where the Christians were already above average in comparison with Moslems.

Consequently, the Assyrians were pushed back to Iraq, and were met with opposition at the Iraqi frontier posts. Eventually there occurred a skirmish and Assyrians killed a few Iraqi soldiers. It was this uproar that supposedly tied the hands of the League of Nations.

C. STATUS QUO

A State ceases to exist when It has lost the essential marks or distinguishing characteristics of a State. It may become extinct through voluntary action or as a result of conquest.

Theoretically, extinction might result from natural causes, such as depopulation, extermination, total emigration, or a permanent condition of anarchy, But practically, states are extinguished through voluntary incorporation, forcible annexation, division into several states, or union with other states.

In the case of the Assyrians in Iraq, none of the factors described above could be applied, except for the factor known as depopulation.

This depopulation factor was caused by extermination or better yet, extermination by force. It is obvious that the observance of any agreements or promises made by the successive state to an annexed or incorporated state is a matter of conscience, or of moral rather than of legal obligation, but on the other hand, during the extinction of the Political State of Assyria, there was NOT a successive state by the name of IRAQ.

D. STATE OF IRAQ

For whatever reasons there were (immaterial to be mentioned in this case), on October 3, 1932, Iraq was admitted to the League of Nations following favorable but somewhat hesitant reports from the Permanent Mandates Commission.

Prior to admitting Iraq, the League asked her to give guarantees for the protection of minorities: “The Rights of foreigners”; for Human Rights”, etc... In compliance with these conditions, Iraq on May 30. 1932, had issued a declaration containing the required guarantees.

CHARTERED CONSTITUTION OF I.C.A.N. 13

E. TREATIES WITH GREAT BRITAIN

Faced with strong nationalist agitation, the British Government did not ask the League of Nations for the formal assignment of a Mandate but, instead, decided to exercise its control by, means of a treaty with Iraq. Such a treaty was concluded on October 10, 1922. This treaty confirmed British control of Iraq by giving Britain the rights, among which clause No. 3 prescribed “The Protection of Foreigners And Christian Minorities.”

Henceforth, considering the Assyrian State being totally absorbed, International Law says:

“...In case of total extinction and absorption or incorporation, the authorities are generally agreed that the annexing or absorbing State, succeeds in the main to the rights and obligations of the extinguished State. The conqueror who reduces a nation to his subjection receives It, subject to all its engagements and duties toward others, the fulfillment of which then becomes his own duty.”

F. CIVIL WAR AND INSURRECTION

The general rule is that:

“... a sovereign is not ordinarily responsible to alien residents for injuries they receive on his territory from belligerent action, or from insurgents whom he could not control, or whom the claimant government or individual had recognized as belligerents...”

But, there are exceptions to general principles: INDEMNITY would seem due to foreigners by way of exception in the following cases:

  • Where there has been shown a lack of due diligervce on the part of the authorities either to prevent or to punish injuries.
  • Where the act complained of is directed against them because they are foreigners, or as belonging to some particular nationality, or religion.
  • Where the injury results from an act contrary to the laws or treaties of the country in which the act is committed, and for which no redress can otherwise be obtained.
  • When there has been a serious violation of International Law, more especially of the rules of civilized warfare.

In cases of a gross violation or an evident denial of justice, or of undue discrimination against foreigners on the part of the authorities.

G. VIOLATION OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

The following acts were committed in violation of International Law:

  • The victims had no legal access to the administrative authorities and local courts for this purpose, because they were non-Moslems, and the Islamic Court was to their disadvantage. Therefore, the rejection of “Millat System” was a denial of justice.
  • Certain crimes of violence, such as murder, robbery, mayhem, rape, burglary, assault and battery, etc. are punishable by military Commissions or other tribunals of like jurisdiction, But, in the case of the massacre of Assyrians by government troops, and the promotion of the leader of the expedition to the rank of General -- as a merit for this expedition -- even though he burned and killed children and women among other untold violations, was also in violation of International Law.

It is required to fulfill the conditions stated in the guarantee and no more, this guarantee was in compliance with the League of Nations and Iraq on the eve of its independence.

As an English monarch put it:

“The Law of Nations has been adhered to rather than cannoned ...”

 Related Information

United Nations

ANNEMASSE: The Assyrian Tragedy, February 1934. Assyrians at the League of Nations (United Nations)
Assyrian National Petition

Microform Collections: United Nations and United States documents
1924: The Treaty of Lausanne
1924: Straits Treaty
1921: Trade Agreement Between His Brittanic Majesty's Government and the Government of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic

1920: The Treaty of Sèvres
1919: The King-Crane Commission Report

1919: The King-Crane Commission Report — Confidential Appendix
1919: The Peace Treaty of Versailles
1918: Report on War Guilt by the 'Commission on the Responsibility of the Authors of the War'
1917: Balfour Declaration
1916: The Sykes-Picot Agreement

1915: The Husain-McMahon Letters
1914: Treaty of Alliance between Germany and Turkey
1907: The Anglo-Russian Entente (concerning Persia)

H. BREACH OF TREATIES

Based on the decision of the Allied Supreme Council which had convened in San Remo on April 25, 1920, Iraq was assigned to Great Britain as a mandate by the Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations dealing with the Mandatory System.

From 1924 to 1930, Iraq's demands for a greater measure of freedom grew more vocal. In contrast with Iraqi aspirations for independence were the doubts of the Council of the League of Nations as to Iraq's fitness for self-government.

These doubts were manifested in 1925 when Mossoul was assigned to Iraq on condition that the British mandate be continued for another 25 years.

By those treaties, the Assyrian dilemma was overshadowed and remains so until the present day.

By this act, not only Assyrians lost their privileges, but so did the Kurds.

Thus, Assyrian demands and aspirations for Autonomy were shelved on December 16, 1925, when Mossoul was awarded to Iraq. It is amazing to note that on December 17, 1925, Turkish Foreign Minister rushes to Paris and concludes a treaty of friendship and non-aggression with the Soviet Plenipotentiaries.

I. GREAT BRITAIN vs. MINORITIES

Obviously, Great Britain had to reconcile, and the most important act of reconciliation occurred with Turkey - 14 CHARTERED CONSTITUTION OF I.C.A.N.

As has been pointed out, Turkish resentment had accumulated against the British. British support of the Greeks in 1919, the championing of national minorities, British occupation of Constantinople after the war and the resulting arbitrary arrests and deportations, the British pro-Arab attitude and support of the Kurds, together with the Mossoul problem, accounted for this resentment.

The Kurdistan problem seemed particularly irritating.  A number of British intelligence officers in the Iraqi mandatory administration entertained the idea that an independent Kurdish State under British influence might be carved out of the territories of Iraq, Turkey and possibly Iran at the cost of Assyrian minority.

This idea originated long before the “Lausanne Treaty,” and the support of Kurdish aspirations was used as a weapon against the recalcitrant Turkish nationalists. The provisions about Kurdish autonomy in “The Treaty of Sevres”, the Kurdish rebellion of 1925 (which coincided with the Mossoul controversy), and finally British insistence on retention of the Kurdish-inhabited province of Mossoul appeared to the Turks as evidences of a sinister plot to undermine Turkish political and territorial integrity.

J. TREATIES BETWEEN TURKEY AND GREAT BRITAIN

Much wisdom and moderation were required to put aside these suspicions and to make a friendly advance toward these former enemies. On June 5, 1926, Turkey concluded a treaty with Great Britain definitely selling the Mossoul Question.

By this act, Turkey agreed to relinquish her claims to Mossoul in exchange for a promissory future unofficial guarantee of ten per cent of Mossoul's oil productions available for her use. To Turkey's satisfaction, no mention was made of Kurdish autonomy or independence. But the most glamorous point was that the British accepted Turkish decision “NOT to allow the Assyrian expellers of World War I to return to their homes In Turkey,” which meant the removal of Assyrians from the Vilayat (Province) of Mossoul, the land promised them soma 12 years ago by British authorities.

K. BREACH OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN AWARDING MOSSOUL TO IRAQ

Thus, subjugating 270,000 souls of Christians into 2.5 million Moslems under the 'SHARI'A' - Moslem Municipal Law, under which Moslems have judicial priority, and the law known to Westerners as a Secular Municipal Law, whereas the state is religion, and religion is state, does not comply with human rights and international obligations.

The real questions are, therefore, whether protection is desirable or feasible for the Christians, and what are the respective responsibilities of Great Britain and the League of Nations in this matter.

Could the International Body be responsible for the creation of Iraq - for that is what the proposed offensive and defensive alliance really means - and be indifferent to the justice of its Internal Administration?

An eminent international lawyer, one of the regular voices on this case, asserted that this treaty sets up a virtual protectorate over Iraq, which means that the answer was negative to the question posed above. Would have been a source of weakness on the Turkish frontier and if this should let other minorities, the Kurds for example, demand similar far treatment - which they also rightfully deserved - then one might have reminded the Arabs of the Eastern fable familiar to them. Of the drying peasant who invited his sons to break a bundle of sticks, a federation of self-interest is much stronger than a purely centralized government of discordant minorities.

Taking all these factors into consideration, this minority was qualified to obtain the "Millat System" solely because it would be able to fulfill the necessary, Qualifications for its defense, revenue, access to its own courts, etc. ...

III. THE ASSYRIAN TASK AND OBLIGATIONS

TRANSFORMATION OF A DREAM INTO A REALITY

One can live by an ideal and die by it. An ideal is a dream until it is - put into theory. This theory remains as such until experimented upon. This experimentation leads us to draw final plans, and consequently these plans remain so, until the construction has begun. It is this last step that provides reality.

Thus, whether we, Assyrians, number some 600,000 or 2,600,000 is immaterial. What is material though, is the fact that we are products of different environments, different geographical and sociological cultures, different patterns of education, and so on, and so on.

Hence our problem.

Each one of us has a Dream. Each one of us is lead by his individualistic instinct of Theorizing. Each one of us has a Plan better than any other In other words, when it comes to Assyrianism, we are all Leaders with no followers. Perhaps, it is all so, because we have been followers of numerous conquerors, political entities, states, governments, ideologies, and what have we. Even in today's daily life we obediently follow Absolute Monarchs in one part of the world and Communism in the other, Constitutional Monarchy in one and Marxism in the other, A Ba'atist Government in one and Capitalist Government in the other, and so on.

CHARTERED CONSTITUTION OF I.C.A.N. 15

But, as mentioned in the above first paragraph, we lack the most essential element, and that is an Executive Plan In Unison.

To meet reality face to face and to function fruitfully within its scope a unison in ideals, theories and planning is required and it is only after this unison that we can proceed in the final construction.

Hence, the importance of formation of I.C.A.N. so that the following procedures are Immediately undertaken;

  1. Governing BODY - The validity of such a body is only justifiable when its composition and authority is equally distributed throughout the nations where Assyrians reside Obviously due to international political factors, such a distribution is mainly to be expanded on geographical rather than political basis.
  2. Constitutional Charter This Charter is to proceed as following:

Assyrian Congressional Delegation:

Assyrians world over, are to elect their Congressional Delegates on international suffrage basis for a term of two years. The Assyrian Congress is to number 80 members with the following representations:

Argentina………………………………1
Australia………………………………3
Brazil ……………………………………1
Canada………………………………………1
Chile…………………………………………1
France ……………………………………1
Great Britain …………………1
Iran …………………………………………4
Iraq ………………………………………30
Jordan ……………………………………1
Kuwait ……………………………………1
Lebanon …………………………………1
Syria ………………………………………8
Turkey ……………………………………3
Uruguay …………………………………1
USA ……………………………………………9
U.S.S.R ………………………………12
Europe ……………………………………1

TOTAL.............. 80

Such a distribution of congressional representation is ostensibly designed so as to symbolically and function-wise each geographic area of Assyrian residence is fairly represented.

The convocation of the Assyrian Congress shall be due every six years in a pre-designated country. and a single delegate from a particular geographical area could cast the votes for all delegates - either pro or con - of his country of origin, should he be duly authorized to do so.

Executive Body:

This body is to be selected by the members of the Assyrian Congressional Delegates. It is to be composed of 25 members presenting the following:

Australia…………………………………………1
Canada…………………………………………………1
Iran………………………………………………………2
Iraq………………………………………………………8
Kuwait, Jordan, Lebanon……1
Turkey…………………………………………………1
South/Central America…………1
Syria……………………………………………………2
USA…………………………………………………………3
U.S.S.R………………………………………………4
Europe…………………………………………………1

TOTAL...................25

The Executive Body is to be selected for a period of a four year term. Like the Assyrian Congress, it is also to meet in conjunction with the first every six years in a pre-designated country.

Central Committee:

This Committee will actually and de facto be the governing body. It is to be composed of 8 members, assigned for a 6-year term as portfolio Ministers for the Departments within the Government of the Assyrian Nation. The Ministerial portfolio each member shall be carrying is as following:

Australia -- Secretary of Interior - duties ranging in census, planning, labor, agriculture, etc.

Canada-U.S.A. and South & Central America -- Secretary of Treasury - duties ranging from raising of funds, selling of bonds, budgetary appropriations and allocations, financing and controlling of treasury, etc.

Iran-Turkey -- Secretary of Security - duties to include police, investigation. research, information, transportation, communication, etc.

Iraq -- Secretary of Justice & Secretary of Health - duties to cover criminal, civic and international law judicial system, e.g., prosecution defense, etc., and health and welfare, on both domestic and international level.

16 CHARTERED CONSTITUTION OF I.C.A.N.

Syria, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon -- Secretary of External Affairs - duties extending to handling of refugee problems, migration, placement, welfare and protection., etc.

U.S.S.R. -- Secretary at Education - duties encompassing education, fine arts, talent appreciation and exhibition, scholarships, career placement, and particularly in conducting a research into Latinization of the Assyrian script., etc.

Europe -- Secretary of Commerce - duties in marketing, trade, economics, investment, etc.

Secretary General:

The secretary-general is to be selected from and by the members of the Central Committee for a period of six year term.

He/She, is to seat and cast his vote on any major international and national decision, with a vote-carrying voice of three (3) units. This is necessary because with each member of the Central Committee carrying 1 vote unit, excepting Iraq, which is given two (2) Ministerial Portfolios.

The functions of the Secretary-General will range from that of Head of International Confederation of the Assyrian State, to that of Assyrian Ambassador world-over, to. Liaison Officer, Editor/Publisher, Secretary of Foreign Affairs, to that of Permanent non-voting Representative of the Assyrian Nation to the United Nations General Assembly.

The latter two (2) positions filled by the Secretary-General are to be designated to another person, should there be budget allocations provided for this purpose in the first 6-year term.

IV. ASSYRIAN CONSTITUTION AND BYLAWS

ARTICLE 1: Selection of Secretary-General not later than January 28, 1975 by the existing Assyrian associations and their affiliates. To authorize such a designee as the Head of the Assyrian Nation on a de lure basis.

ARTICLE 2. The Secretary-General is to proceed as a first step, to register the International Confederation of Assyrian Nation in a neutral country, with great deal of exposure to international affairs.

ARTICLE 3: Issuance of a decree proclaiming an Assyrian any person with Assyrian or Chaldean ancestral background, whether such a person be a monarchist, Marxist, socialist, Ba'atist, capitalist, or atheist, Evangelist, Catholic Jacobite, or Nestorian.

ARTICLE 4: Issuing a decree demanding not to draft an Assyrian into the armed forces of two countries of opposing ideologies and on the warpath, unless such a person volunteers.

ARTICLE 5: The Secretary General is to publish a monthly magazine dealing with monthly progress reports and information, at least in three (3) languages.

ARTICLE 6: The Secretary-General is to prepare the Assyrian Case for presentation and submission) to a friendly government member of the United Nations, so that such a case could be taken for discussion. deliberation and debate onto the floor of the United Nations General Assembly.

ARTICLE 7: The Secretary-General is to seek a non-voting seat in the United Nations General Assembly.

ARTICLE 8: The Assyrian Case is to lay strictly within) the international law structure and within the Charter of the United Nations.

ARTICLE 9: The Secretary-General is to conduct discussions and consultations with all the governments and th6t respective representatives, indiscriminately.

ARTICLE 10: Immediate formation of Assyrian Personnel pool.

ARTICLE 11: Selection from this Pool personnel for the following positions within the I.C.A.N.

¨ Secretary of Commerce
¨ Secretary of Education
¨ Secretary of External Affairs
¨ Secretary of Health
¨ Secretary of Interior
¨ Secretary of Justice
¨ Secretary of Security
¨ Secretary of Treasury

ARTICLE 12: Raising and providing the Secretary-General with the minimum working budget of $70,000 per annum to conduct the I.C.A.N. operations. (it is recommended that these funds be raised strictly on a voluntary basis)

ARTICLE 13. So that the work of I.C.A.N. continues to function normally, should the Secretary-General designated become incapacitated, the latter.. shall select four (4) persons incognito and place the names - in order of preference in a vault of a Swiss bank.

ARTICLE 14: The Secretary-General is to seek diplomatic recognition from all nations.

V. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FINANCIAL OPERATIONS

Besides voluntary contributions for the operation of the Secretariat, it is necessary that we institute the following two (2) steps for further expansion of Assyrian involvement in the world affairs.

  1. Funds from Membership Dues,
  2. Formation of Assyrian Financial Corporation

CHARTERED CONSTITUTION OF I.C.A.N.

ASSYRIAN MONETARY FUND

Negotiable Bond $ _________ No. _______ Share _____

INTERNATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF ASSYRIAN NATION ASSYRIAN POLITICAL ARM THIS CERTIFIES THAT _______________________________________________________ is the owner of $_____________ Promissory Note payable in six (6) years from the below date, at value thereof.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the said Organization has caused this Certificate to be signed by its duly authorized officer(s) and to be sealed with the Seal of the Organization.

this ______
day of ________ A.D. ______

Denominations: $300 - Fall Share, $150 - 112 Share, $75 - 114 Share, $30 - 1/10 Share, and $10.

Awisha Hermis, Treasure, I.C.A.N.

ASSYRIAN PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT

On August 1, 1977 INTERNATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF ASSYRIAN NATION ( I.C.A.N.) Sworn to Uphold the Assyrian National Rights and Aspiration as a Nation, in a manner prescribed in the Assyrian Manifesto (Pub. Oct. 15, 1974, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.). Has Submitted A Petition for Registration to the U.S. Department of Justice, WASHINGTON, D.C. U.S.A.* and Announces the Formation of ASSYRIAN PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT As Per CHARTERED CONSTITUTION

ASSYRIAN CHANCERY
4849 Connecticut AVE., N.W.
SUITE 506
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20015
U.S.A.

General proceeding for International Registry, were undertaken, and duly and legallyh executed by the ASSYRIAN PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT.


ADDENDA

As you can see, there was an Assyrian Chancery in Washington, D.C. It had to close its doors, due to lack of support and funds.


THE ASSYRIAN MANIFESTO V
DECLARATION
(Reprint from the Original Assyrian Manifesto by Ivan Kakovitch. Pub. Dec. 15, 1974, Washington, D.C)

In order to attain our goal and eventually meet our national aspirations within the framework of international law and without cultivating enmity and harboring opposition of any kind, from any government, in particular the Government of the Iraqi Arab Republic in relation to our justifiable claims and demands for a long-delayed act from its part, which is that of endeavoring the granting of THE AUTONOMOUS ASSYRIAN STATE in the Vilayat of Mossul (renamed Province of Ninewah), Iraq, our sole duty is to enact a constitutional bylaws, which would allow us to proceed in formation of organizational governing, administrative, executive and functional departments of self-rule and operation of all Assyrians throughout the world.

The above “Declaration” was made during the most turbulent period in the Middle East. United Nations Bylaws had described it as controversial and inflammatory. Even a warning letter was issued by a Representative of the Non-Government Organization to that effect, informing the author, that this provocative “Declaration” is tantamount to interfering in the affairs of a sovereign nation, namely, Iraq.

All has changed in less than 30 years. Now, it is criminal and unfriendly act not to interfere in the affairs of sovereign nations. Just look at former Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Iraq, as of press time.

In 1974, nine out of ten Assyrians lived under dictatorial regimes, at best, and tyrannical, at worst. Today, ninety-five percent live under the banners of democracy. Hence, if we dared to proclaim our rights then, we must zealously combine our efforts to form a functioning governmental body without fear or persecution, practically in all areas of the globe. No force on earth can stop us from proclaiming for what the nations of the world go to war, namely liberty and freedom of expression.

Nothing less than NATIONAL AUTONOMY with properly designated geographical boundaries entered into the annals of the United Nations and duly recognized by the same body will be acceptable to the Assyrians of the world, Iraq included.

The shortest distance between two points is a straight line. The solution to a problem is an answer. Numerous venues are employed to attain this answer. The more the problems, the more the outcry for answers. The answers are nowhere to be found, simply because they do not exist. They need to be created, invented, might be a more apt description. The difficulty of a problem is similar to the answer. It also does not exist. It has to be perceived, imagined, or merely advocated.

Do the Assyrians have a problem? Yes. No Assyria is the problem. Hence, a simple answer. Create Assyria.

Fruition of a project depends on three elements: (a) idea, (b) plan, and (c) execution.

IDEA:

Perception of the idea still has its roots in the hearts and minds of the Assyrians in general. The zeal to attain it, though, has been drastically reduced. This lack of nationalism, by no means, has been forced upon the Assyrians, nor has it been ferociously thwarted. Ironically, it is the kindness and a great deal of developmental success of the communities in all phases of life, e.g., education, economy and financial security. In other words, generosity and kindness have supplanted the sword in eradicating nationalism to a certain degree. Most of the advanced nations of the world have opened their borders, and have funded their social programs to accommodate the multitude of Assyrian immigrants into their countries. Obviously this migration takes place at the expense of our placating the dwellings, the farms, positions, businesses and the land their ancestors lived on it for six millennia.

Hence, we face our major problem. Depopulation.

In some circles of our leadership a platform of making waves wherever, for whatever purpose, and whenever possible is fervently advocated. It is time to eschew this venerated, but wanton agenda. It is both wrong and harmful to our cause. To be heard by everyone, for any insignificant event and all over the world, should be placated and substituted by actively working on what counts most. One single arena, one single plan and one cohesive idea are the tools to be employed. This work becomes imperative when it is conducted from the focal point, The Province of Ninewah, and namely the city of Mossul, Iraq.

The process of slowly reestablishing the political bases in Mossul must take precedence above all else. This move will precipitate a migration of the population back to their ancestral home.

There are no more than four to five thousand Assyrians living in Mossul, and perhaps as many as forty thousand in the neighboring towns and villages. There are geographical demarcations in the Iraqi governmental annals for all the Provinces. Neither Kirkuk nor Arbil, are within the Ninewah Province borders. These two cities are in Kurdistan, not de jure, but de facto.

Mossul is the third largest city in Iraq. With over 1.5 million inhabitants, the city is complemented with excellent weather, fertility of land, and internationally known cultural center. Kurdistan, in general, and Kirkuk and Arbil, in particular, heightened by our leadership political presence is not a sound policy. Encouraging some forty thousand souls to live and function politically among fervent nationalists of some two to three million souls, is tantamount to national suicide.

PLAN:

A project, in concert with international community of nations is to be launched to reestablish the Assyrians of Kurdistan into the Province of Ninewah, in general, and in Mossul, in particular. All funds raised for Assyrians in Iraq, are to be put forward for purchasing real estate, in any form or shape as it fits both, economic and mechanical demands. It is more feasible, economically, to executive this plan at this time. The purchases could be made on voluntary basis by Assyrian investors. At a later date, when an Assyrian Monetary Fund (AMF) is created, most anyone could purchase shares in it. This fund will be based on rules and regulations of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). All Assyrian-owned ventures could be leased at minimal fees for the newcomers from Kurdistan. All properties though, shall bear the names of the purchasers. They may want to part with it at their discretion for the benefit of those who can't afford to purchase it by themselves, in the future.

This is a protracted, long-term and a precarious project. The success of repopulation is not foreseen for years. It would take ten, twenty, or even fifty years, but the results shall be ominous.

This plan is not to be taken lightly. It is the only answer to the Assyrian problem. The international community will not heed by our demands unless there is a substantially large Assyrian community inhabiting the Province, and its capital. The plan is plausible without hindrance from any antagonistic circle. A one hundred pieces of property, could lodge, employ and feed over two hundred families, in other words, almost one thousand persons. In a few years, the number of immigrants into Ninewah could be soaring at a pleasantly alarming rate.

GOVERNMENTAL STRUCTURE

This is the most complex of all the problems. It has to deal with individual beliefs, rather than mechanical structure. However, once mechanical structure is in place, individual opinions and beliefs will fit into such a mechanism.

A stringent point to be made is that the vanguard of leadership for Assyria must be made of Assyrian population in Iraq. However, one must also point out that it is imperative the non-residents of Iraq to extend their hand, on any level to their brethren. Another emphasis is that any aid from outside of Iraq must be directed solely for reestablishing the Assyrians in the Province.

A Constitutional Assembly (amendable), or Congress of Assyria (COA) is hereby presented in its preliminary form. A number of facts must be taken into consideration in formatting this Assembly. The seats in this Assembly are distributed among all the communities in the world to work hand-in-hand with the Iraqi delegates. Another point of preponderance is that the Iraqi delegates must have the majority of the seats, so as not to be overruled by the non-resident delegates. A precarious rule to be inserted into the Constitution is that the non-resident delegates can use block-voting criteria, for economic reasons, however, the Iraqi delegates must use individual voice vote. This is a safety factor that is ought to be instituted. This is important, because it will avoid one person to have too much power.

CONGRESS OF ASSYRIA

The Congress is to consist of sixty-three (63) delegates. A fair distribution of power must be respected on any level. The delegates from twenty-four (24) countries-including Iraq are to be elected on international suffrage. The non-resident pro-temp President, responsible for block voting, is also to be elected by the majority of the delegates of his/her country. All legislation is to be carried by a simple majority vote. A forum of 45 delegates or votes is, therefore, determined to be legal.

The distribution of delegates is recommended to be as following:

  1. IRAQ……………………………………………………… 32
  2. USA………………………………………………………… 8
  3. RUSSIA (FEDERATION)……………… 4
  4. AUSTRALIA………………………………………… 2
  5. CANADA………………………………………………… 2
  6. IRAN…………………………………………………………2
  7. SWEDEN/NORWAY/DENMARK………… 2
  8. FRANCE………………………………………………… 1
  9. UKRAINE……………………………………………… 1
  10. GEORGIA……………………………………………… 1
  11. ARMENIA……………………………………………… 1
  12. SYRIA…………………………………………………… 1
  13. LEBANON……………………………………………… 1
  14. SPAIN…………………………………………………… 1
  15. GERMANY/AUSTRIA………………………… 1
  16. TURKEY/GREECE……………………………… 1
  17. HOLLAND/BELGIUM………………………… 1
  18. ITALY/SWITZERLAND…………………… 1

Once these delegates assemble on one or two occasions, then, it will be their first task to assign portfolios for the governing body of Assyria. The preceding pages are strictly preliminary recommendations, and by no means, are dogmatic rules and regulations.

IVAN KAKOVITCH
TELEPHONE/FAX: (714) 236-4851
e-Mail: ivankakovitch@aol.com
ADDRESS: P.O. BOX 3256, CYPRESS, CA 90630 USA


THE ASSYRIAN MANIFESTO VI

FORWARD WITH ASSYRIA: NO MORE, NO LESS.

I. TINY PRINT; HORRENDOUS IMPACT

A gathering of Iraqis, both Shi’a and Sunni faiths, Kurds, Chaldeans, Syriacs and some other denominations, took place during the weekend of October 23, 2003, in Baghdad, Iraq. As reported by Zinda Magazine on its web site, a contingent of Assyrians from Iran, Syria, Lebanon, United States, Australia, Holland and Sweden, among others were also present. This group consisted of indigenous inhabitants of Iraq, some of whom were representing the Iraqi associations.

Most of the participants from abroad though, were duly selected to represent their comrades, however, a large group of individuals present, merely represented themselves.

The declaration issued at the conclusion of this meeting portrayed mixed results. However, our point is that of the “Assyrian Question”.

Hence, the discussion shall be cordoned only to our national interest.

A small print indicates that the participants had decided and had agreed upon discarding both the name Assyria, and Assyrian Language, in favor of Chaldeoassyrian (notice the lower case for Assyrian), and Syriac, respectively.

It is interesting to note that ‘Assyria’ and ‘Assyrians’ a nation of some seven millennia of history, language and culture, is totally obliterated, and as though it is not enough, its language is falsified and called Syriac.

II. LEGALITY vs. NATIONALITY

It is one thing — and rather important to accept the rendition of the citizens and residents of Iraq, whatever their nationality, political or religious affiliation, or whatever rationale they may entertain among themselves to decide the paths of their future. But, it is another — and rather just as important not to accept — No, ignore, or better yet, vehemently reject the rendition of the residents of the foreign countries to decide the path of the future of Assyria and Assyrians.

It is utterly irresponsible and treacherous to sign declarations pertaining to national aspirations of people by unauthorized and unrecognized personnel. Not a single foreign participant was ever elected by his/her peers.

The most formidable prerequisite for democracy and democratic ideals is election on international suffrage. Unfortunately, most of the foreign signatories, enjoying the fruits of democracy in their adopted countries, chose to totally eradicate this vital element.

It is beyond common sense and imagination that most of the signatories that happen to be rather well educated and professional individuals, would choose to undertake such an important act without consent and advice of their friends and their brethren. Most — if not all — probably are zealous to portray themselves as strict and patriotic adherents of the US foreign policy, and are presumably assessing that they are merely following the dictates of the Foggy Bottom (US State Department). However, they are naïve. Because it is not so, and the United States has absolutely no interest in our national affairs, nor shall it show any in the future. It is up to us to foment movements. It is our sole duty, and no one else’s.

The past constantly reminds us not to harbor any promises, no matter who or whatever country issues them. The decisions of our past leadership of the 1920s and early 1930s cost us our country and a great number of fervent defendants of our nation, topped by the many hundreds of thousands of our people. But, we are still around, and growing strong. We will not allow another wrong decision to seal our faith forever.

The U.S. and Great Britain forces shall not remain in Iraq forever. They will pull out at their convenience, and Iraq shall rule itself on whatever format it chooses. Thus, regenerating a new name and a new language is essentially destructive, since it shall only make us even more insignificant than we are today.

But, it is mainly the indigenous Assyrians whose lives and culture will be jeopardized on account of some egotistic saber-rattlers.

Capitulation is acceptable only when we are vanquished. We are still victors. Assyria is a state of mind. Thus, It shall survive. It Must.

Hence, by committing such a heinous act, as to sign in the name of the people that they do not represent, they stand accused of high treason. With no remorse, they should be disgraced to such an extent that no Assyrian should ever offer them a dais to speak.

In conclusion, it is important to note that the writer knows most of these participants, and, some — if not all -happen to be friends, comrade-in-arms, and even relatives. In all fairness, the national issues must take precedence over personal relations.

III. PRELIMINARY PLAN OF ACTION

This is an open invitation to all the Assyrians of the world to take a cohesive action, immediately, and without delay.

First, communicate with each other in your areas, whether it is a village, a town, a borough or a country.

Second, elect a duly authenticated coordinator.

Third, have the coordinators with full credentials of going through elections based on international suffrage.

Fourth, coordinators from all over are to select a base of operations, and/or a communications center.

Fifth, coordinators are to enact a minimal contributory amount of funding. This funding should be limited only to printing and communications.

Sixth, designate the First Plenary Session within three to six months, at the most conveniently derived location by the coordinators from all over.

In the meantime, the author shall retain a Post Office Box, in order to maintain a line of communication — albeit pro tempore -- whether it is on individual or organization level. All individual contributions shall be dealt with and posted by a Certified Public Accountant. However, no organizational contributions are recommended at this moment. This step will materialize only when all bases of operations are progressing as anticipated.

Please post your opinions whether oral or written with this temporary coordinating center, as well as with the community media of your areas of residence.

Be vociferous, if you so desire. It is your right. It is your duty.

IVAN KAKOVITCH
CALIFORNIA, USA





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