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Assyrians: From Bedr Khan to Saddam Hussein
(Second Edition, Third Printing)

by Frederick A. Aprim | profile | writings | website

Posted: Monday, March 28, 2016 at 08:20 PM UT


Assyrians: From Bedr Khan to Saddam Hussein (Second Edition, Third Printing)
by Frederick A. Aprim - activist, author, historian.

Purchase Information:
Amazon.com | XLibris

Book Details

  • Paperback: 410 pages
  • Publisher: Xlibris
    (originally published on
    July 20, 2006)
    Second Edition, Third Printing (March, 2016)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1425712991
  • ISBN-13: 978-1425712990
  • Product Dimensions:
    6 x 0.9 x 9 inches
  • Shipping Weight: 1.4 pounds

Book Description

Throughout the Christian Era, the Assyrians have faced an immense tragedy through persecution, oppression, and massacres. The Assyrian tragedy in Mesopotamia continued intermittently during the Sassanid Persians (A.D. 226 - 637), Seljuk Turks invasion of the eleventh century, Mongols invasion in 1258, Tamerlane's destruction that began in 1394, the Saffavid Persians in early sixteenth century and during the rule of the Ottoman Turks since the middle of the sixteenth century.

Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Turks and Kurds committed numerous massacres against the Assyrian Christians in their secluded mountains of northern Mesopotamia and in Tur Abdin region in modern southeastern Turkey. As the Ottoman Empire entered WWI, it declared jihad (holy war) against its Christian subjects. Backed by Kurds, the Turkish army invaded northwestern Persia (Iran) and committed further atrocities against the Assyrian refugees who fled the Ottoman territories and against Assyrians of Persia as well. The jihad transformed into an ethnic genocide against the Assyrians that was perpetrated by the Turkish state and Kurdish warlords.

This genocide continues to this very day due to the policies of the Kurds in northern Iraq, southeastern Turkey, and northeastern Syria. The Assyrians lost two-thirds of their population and most of their homelands in northern Mesopotamia during WWI alone. Since the creation of the modern Middle Eastern states after the partition of the Ottoman Empire post WWI, the Assyrians have faced and continue to face a systematic Arabization, Turkification, and Kurdification policies by Pan-Arab governments, Pan-Turkish governments, and by Kurdish political parties. Hundreds of thousands of Assyrians have fled their homelands seeking shelter in Europe, United States, and Australia. Furthermore, the rise of fundamentalism in the Middle East is posing another serious threat to the survival of the remaining Assyrians and to other Christian communities in the Middle East.

Book Table of Contents


Background and Introduction 11  
Chapter One: The Massacres of the Nineteenth Century - A Prelude to Genocide 19  

The Massacres of Bedr Khan Beg (1843-1848)

26  

The Massacres and Persecutions of 1895

33  

The Coming of the CUP to Power in Turkey

37  

The Genocide: Documentation and Definition

38  
Chapter Two: The Destruction of the Assyrians and their Homeland 48  

The Assyrians on the Brink of the Great War

48  

The Assyrian Exodus from the Hakkari Mountains

51  

Mar Benyamin Shimun Meets the Grand Duke and More Russian Promises

55  

The first Russian Retreat from Azerbaijan and the Assyrian Exodus to Russia

56  

The Remaining Assyrians in Urmia

62  

Atrocities at Gulpashan

63  

The Russian Promise

65  

The Diyar Bakir and Tur 'Abdin regions

65  

Massacre in Kharput

66  

The Destruction in Diyar Bakir and Tur 'Abdin Regions

68  

The Second Russian Withdrawal from Urmia and the British Promise

80  

The Massacre of the Assyrians in Khoi

85  

The Massacre of the Assyrians in the French Mission

88  

The Massacre of the Assyrians in the American Mission

90  

A Desperate Appeal from an Assyrian

93  
Chapter Three: A Change in the Course of the Assyrians' Modern History 97  

The Assassination of Patriarch Mar Benyamin Shimun

97  

The Assyrian War Song

101  

The Exodus from Urmia to Saen Qal'aa and Hamadan

102  

The Arrival at Baquba Refugee Camp - Mesopotamia

109  

The Transfer to Mindan Camp near Mosul

114  

The Assyro-Chaldean Protectorate in Jazira, Syria

117  
Chapter Four: The Assyrians in the Midst of International Treaties and the League of Nations 121  

The Sykes-Picot Agreement (April 26 - October 23, 1916)

121  

The 1919 Paris Peace Conference

124  

The League of Nations

127  

Post Paris Peace Conference

128  

In San Remo and the Treaty of Sévres

132  

Treaty of Lausanne

135  

The Constantinople Conference

141  

The Settlement Problem Continues

143  

The Permanent Court of International Justice (The Hague)

145  

The Assyrian Case Continues

146  

The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of Alliance of 1930

150  

Assyrians in the League of Nations Again

152  

Opinion of the Permanent Mandates Commission - September 24, 1932

154  
Chapter Five: The Path to the 1933 Simmel Massacre 159  

The Iraq Levy

159  

The Assyrian Levy

160  

Testimonies about the Assyrians' Service in Iraq

162  

The Mosul Incident of 1923

163  

The Kirkuk Incident of 1924

164  

Setting the Stage for the Simmel Massacre

165  

The Detention of the Patriarch

168  

Iraqi Government Press Campaign against the Assyrians

168  

The Dashtazi Settlement (Z-plan) Forced on the Assyrian Leaders

171  

Assyrians Cross from Iraq into Syria

173  

The Simmel Massacre - the Documentation

175  

Beyond Simmel

180  

The Deportation of the Patriarch

182  

Was the Massacre of Simmel a Genocide?

183  

An Appeal by the Patriarch

183  

Mar Eshai Shimun in Geneva with Yusuf Malek, October 1933

186  

The Fate of Those Responsible for the Simmel Massacre

187  
Chapter Six: After the Massacre - Between Iraq and Syria 191  

The Ghab and Khabor (Khabur) Settlement Schemes

191  

My Family During These Difficult Times

198  

The 1941 Coup d' état

203  

The Assyrians Save Iraq from Nazi Germany

204  

The End of Rashid 'Ali al-Gaylani

210  

What Happened to the British Promises?

210  

The Assyrian Case in San Francisco, May 7, 1945

211  

Britain Restores Old Order

213  

Beyond World War II

214  
Chapter Seven: The Assyrians and the Final Exodus 219  

Murder, Persecution and Harassment of Assyrians

219  

The Issue of "Taba'aiya" in Iraq

222  

Iraq-Iran War (1980-1988)

226  

The Anfal Campaign

231  

Human Rights Violations Against the Assyrians

236  

The Impact of the 1990 Gulf War on the Assyrians

243  

An Assyrian Family's Experience

246  

The Refugee Camps

249  

Silopi Refugee Camp

253  

The Assyrian Refugees in Jordan

255  

Further Persecutions and Human Rights Abuses Against Assyrians

256  

The Impact of the 2003 "Liberation of Iraq" on Assyrians

267  

Persecution Against Assyrians in Iran, Syria and Turkey

269  
Chapter Eight: The Kurds and Assyria 283  

The Kurds: A Historical Background

283  

Kurds Usurp Assyrian lands - Figures and Historical Accounts

288  

Assyria or Kurdistan

293  

Changing the Demography of Assyria

295  

Kurds and Iraq in Modern Times

301  

Paris Peace Agreement

304  

Ankara Peace Process

306  

Revising History and Other Thoughts

307  
Chapter Nine: Common and Notable Assyrians Affected by the Ongoing Genocide 310  

Iskharya Dinkha Sheikhamar

310  

Katie Eshoo

313  

Tamara Shmuel Warda

315  

Isa Zhako

317  

Maria Sargis Badal

319  

Elisha Peera Aghassi

321  

Pidosiya Badal David

322  

Shmouel Rouel d' Gawar

325  

Giwargis Yonathan

329  

Younan Namato Younan

331  

Hannah Yohannan Yohannan

333  

Sherein Sayad Isaac

338  

Mary, Juen, and William Yohannan

342  

Bato Paul Elias

345  

Little Wahida

350  

Hazno Hanneko

352  

Nancy Abraham Muishil

355  
Chapter Ten: Final Thoughts 358  
Bibliography 365  
Index 375  
Appendix 381

Book Review

After the establishment of Islam as a state religion in the Fertile Crescent by the 8th century, the ferocious attacks by the Timurids, plundering the region as they descended from Central Asia in the 14th century, drove many Christian Aramaic speakers who did not convert to Islam into the mountains of the Taurus, Hakkari, and the Zagros for shelter. Others remained in their ancestral villages on the Mosul (Nineveh) Plain only to face heavy pressure to assimilate into Arab culture. The greatest catastrophe to visit the Assyrians in the modern period was the genocide committed against them, as Christians, during the Great War.

From the Assyrian renaissance experienced when, miraculously, they became the objects of Western Christian missionary educational and medical efforts, the Assyrians fell into near oblivion. Shunned by the Allies at the treaties that ended WWI, Assyrians drifted into Diaspora, destructive denominationalism, and fierce assimilation tendencies as exercised by chauvinistic Arab, Persian and Turkish state entities. Today they face the growing clout of their old enemies and neighbors, the Kurds, another Muslim ethnic group that threatens to control power, demand assimilation, and offer to engulf Assyrians as the price for continuing to live in the ancient Assyrian homeland. As half of the world's last Aramaic-speaking population has arrived in unwanted Diaspora, some voices are making an impact, including that of Frederick Aprim.

Eden Naby, PhDEden Naby, PhD
Afghanistan: Mullah, Marx and Mujahid (Westview, 2002)
The Assyrian Experience (Harvard College Library, 1999)

About the author

Frederick A. AprimFrederick A. Aprim was born in the city of Kirkuk (the ancient Assyrian city of Arrapha), northern Iraq (Assyria). He is a graduate of Mosul University with a B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering. Fred's family, like many Assyrian families, experienced its own share of oppression and persecution. While in Iraq, both his father and teenage brother were imprisoned unfairly and tortured. In 2003, he published a booklet titled "Indigenous People in Distress." In December 2004, he published his second book "Assyrians: The Continuous Saga". His third book on the Assyrian genocide and the Assyrian national question "Assyrians: From Bedr Khan to Saddam Hussein" (First Edition) was published in July 2006, the second edition in January 2007, followed by the second edition third printing in March, 2016.

Fred's many articles are posted on:
www.atour.com
www.atour.com/people/fred-aprim
www.aina.org
www.bethsuryoyo.com
www.nineveh.com
www.zindamagazine.com and other Assyrian websites.




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