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Assyrian language: Past and Present

by William Warda — author and historian. California, USA 2005.

Posted: Friday, February 03, 2012 at 01:11 PM UTC

Assyrian Scribes - Stone Panels - Palace of Sennacherib, 640-615 BC

Assyrian Scribes, Panel of Sennacherib (704-681 BC)
Nineveh, northern Iraq
Neo-Assyrian, about 640-615 BC
Artifact location: British Museum

One scribe hold a hinged writing board covered in wax. Actual examples of the boards have been excavated at the Assyrian city of Nimrud. Information could be recorded and then the wax melted and reused. The bearded man is writing in a scroll, probably in Aramaic — the main spoken language of the Near East. Alternatively, he may be a war artist, recording details of the campaign for use by sculptors creating reliefs such as this one back in Nineveh.

Bronze Lions - Nimrud (Kalhu) - Northwest Palace of Shalmaneser V

Bronze Lions
Excavated/Findspot: North West Palace, Room B
(Asia, Iraq, North Iraq, Nimrud (Kalhu), North West Palace)
Artifact location: British Museum
Date: 726BC-722BC
Period/Culture: Neo-Assyrian
Authority: Ruler Shalmaneser V

Small bronze lion shaped measuring-weight with ring: inscribed in Assyrian and in Aramaic. Five lines are incised on the flank of the lion, presumably to represent 'one-fifth'. The lion, when originally cast, was too light, and the ring around its neck brought its weight up to the desired amount.

Inscription Type: inscription
Inscription Script: cuneiform
Inscription Language: Assyrian
Inscription Translation: Palace of Shalmaneser, king of Assyria; one fifth of a mina of the king.
Inscription Comment: Incised.

Inscription Type: inscription
Inscription Language: Aramaic
Inscription Translation: one fifth
Inscription Comment: Incised.

Kelsey Museum #19503 - Magic Bowl from Seleucia

Magic Bowls
Kelsey Museum 19503

6th or 7th century A.D.

This bowl is "written" in a pseudo-script, clearly meant to imitate Syriac (an Aramaic dialect and alphabet, used on many demon-bowls).

Bibl.: Unpublished.

Kelsey Museum #19504 - Magic Bowl from Seleucia
Magic Bowls
Kelsey Museum 19504

6th or 7th century A.D.

The text is written in Mandaic, an Eastern Aramaic dialect and script, in three wedge-shaped panels, each panel beginning on the bowl's rim and moving inward. The text itself is a copy of a long spell which appears on several such bowls, and into which the client's name — in this case Negray daughter of Denday — was inserted in the proper places. It was meant as a counter-spell, to protect the client against all her enemies' curses, whatever they may have been.

Bibl.: Unpublished. The translation and notes were provided by Timothy La Vallee, who is preparing these bowls for publication.

Assyrian language:
Past and Present

The ancient Assyrian language is classified as Akkadian, the language of a people who together with Sumerians became the predecessors of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians. To facilitate administrative tasks of the Assyrian Empire long before the fall of Nineveh the use of the Aramaic was sanctioned by the government because in distant part of the empire the Aramaic language was far better known than the Akkadian.

The empire chancelleries adopted a simple standard form of the Aramaic for correspondence with such areas " In the hearth of the Empire "Aramaic "dockets" were attached to the cuneiform tablets. Such dockets gave brief indication of names and dates and a summary of the contents which were useful to merchants. This is classified as "Official Aramaic". Many Assyrian tablets have been found with Aramaic incised on them. Assyrian scribes are often depicted in pairs. One writing in Akkadian on the cuneiform tablet, the other writing in Aramaic on the parchment or papyrus.

Among several bronze lion-weights found at Nineveh some had both the Akkadian and Aramaic text inscribed on them. They bore the names of the Assyrian kings at the time of use which included Shalmansser III (858-824), Sargon (721-705), Sennacherib (704-681). The Official Aramaic later became accepted as the standard form of literary communication by the Aramaic speaking people in various part of the Empire.

Bronze Lion weight inscribed in Assyrian; "palace of Shalmanser, King of Assyria , two third of a mina of the king', and in Aramaic "Two thirds (of a mina) of the Land".

According to the Old Testament, "in 701 B.C. when official of Sennacherib appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and the Rab-Shakeh spoke in Hebrew to the officers of King Hezekiah, these latter begged him to speak rather in Aramaic, for they understood this official tongue and did not want the populace to hear the humiliating demand for submission made in Hebrew." In later centuries Aramaic replaced Hebrew even in Israel. During their exile years in Babylon the Jews adopted the Square Assyrian script which was commonly known to them as Ketav Ashuri or the Assyrian text. The law demands that a Torah scroll be written with the " ketav Ashuri" so called after its place of origin.

In time Aramaic became spoken in Mesopotamia also and gradually replacing the Akkadian language. The transition was made possible because the 22 letters Aramaic alphabet was much easier to master than the 600 or so signs of the cuneiform. The evidence of side by side existance of the two langauges at 4th century B.C. is an Aramic document from Urk which has been written in cuneiform. The Akkadian Language continued to be used for astronomical texts down to the time of christ. Administrative text in Akkadian language from Babylon about the activities of Mardukh temple continued till 92 B.C., astronomical chronicles have been found which date to 76 A.D.. The 2nd century A.D. novelist Iamblichus reported that the Akkadian language was spoken along with the Aramaic at his time.

Most old langauges for different reasons have gone through drastic changes from time to time. For example the Old English language has changed greatly from what it was at early Christian centuries. Present day English reader will have dificaulty reading and undrestanding the Lord's prayer as written at that time as seen below.

"Feder Ure bu be eart on hefonum, si bin nama gehalgod. To becume bin rice. Gewurbe Oin willa on Eoroan swa swa on heoronum. ..."

Today's Persian language has no similarity to what was spoken by the Achaemenian Persians. The Greek and the Armenian languages have changed greatly since the ancient times.

The contemporary Assyrians use thousands of word in their daily conversation which are clearly Akkadian . The Syriac, another name for the Christian Assyrian language, was perhaps in use as a literary language in northern Mesopotamia before the Christian era but only a few written examples of it have survived from the first century A.D. It developed as a literary language of some importance in Edessa after a christian school succeeded a pagan learning center. Gradually it was accepted as the ecclesiastical and cultural language of Assyrian Christians. It is often wrongly called Aramaic but in reality it is a different langauge though related to it just as the European langauges are related to Latin but are not exactly the same. Currently there are two slightly different dialects of the Syriac language called Eastern and Western, i.e. Suryaye and Suryoye.

Some differences in pronunciation between the ancient and the present day Assyrian words may be due to mispronunciation of the Cuneiform signs by the translators. Some Akkadian signs can be vocalized in more than one way. The same word is often ponounced slightly differently by different scholars. Some Syriac words have gone through varriation in pronounciation because of peuliarity of how the Syriac words are accented compared to the Akkadian language, also during the last two thousand years some words have gone through slight modification. In some words the letter B is pronounced as V. For example the Akkadian Abu for father is pronounced as Ava-ha for parent. The Akkadian Q at times is softened into khap in the Syriac language. The contemporary Eastern Syriac words presented here belong to the Urmi Dialect which may be slightly different than that of the northern Iraq or the north of Mosul Mountain accents still spoken in some places.

The presence of the Akkdian Words in Syriac does not seem accidental because of their greater number, and that they are scattered evenly along the entire alphabet and all sorts of subjects. Because the present Syriac to English and vs-versa dictionaries are inadequate, the extent of the Akkadian words in this language is difficult to ascertain.

It should be noted that while the ancient Assyrian words universaly ended in "U" the contemporary Eastern Assyrian words in their basic form end in "A". The vowel "A" of Eastern dialect in all cases is pronounced as "O" in the western Assyrian/Syriac speech of today.

The vocabulary presented here consists mostly of single words without their usual derivatives and inflected forms such as verb tense, adjectives, adverbs , plural and gender forms and others. With the addition of these variations and further finds this list can grow into thousands of entries.

One hundred words of this concordance was compiled by Peter Bet Basso from the "State Archives of Assyria, Volume III: Court Poetry and Literary Miscellanea", by Alasdair Livingstone, Helsinki University Press. The balance was added by William Warda from the glossaries contained in the following sources.

Samuel A.B. Mercer, "Assyrian Grammar with Chrestomathy and Glossary" Frederick Ungar Publishing, New York, 1961

Simo Parpola ed. "Neo-Assyrian Dictionary, English/Assyrian, Assyrian/English", Mesopotamian Museum of Chicago, 2002

Samuel A.B. Mercer, "Assyrian Grammar" London 1921

Only the first two pages of this list has been updated to include a greater number of words common between the two languages but these are by no mean all.

The Eastern Assyrian Dictionary used to verify the pronunciation and the meaning of the contemporary Assyrian words is: Oraham's Dictionary of the stabilized and enriched Assyrian Language and English, Chicago Ill. 1943

The western Assyrian/Syriac pronunciation of these words was provided by Gowriel.

Related Information

Aramaic dictionary (online)

Akkadian English and Syriac dictionary

Goto: A B D E G H I K L M N P Q R S T U W Z

Akkadian/ Assyrian Contemporary Assyrian Eastern Dialect Contemporary Assyrian Western Dialect  Meaning

Pronounce A's as in Ant
Before R or L pronouce A as in father

 Abalu  Labuli  Mobel  to carry, to take
 Abatu  Evada    To do
 Abi  Abi or Babi   My father
 Abu   Aba or Baba     Father
Abu Ab   August
Abudanaiu Avudanaia   Subjective, pertianing to performance
 Abu-Kku-Nu  Babokhun or Abokun    Your father (plural)
Abura Avura   fleeting, transiant
Addamaiutu Haddamauta   membership
Addamu Haddama   body organ
 Adamu  Dimma    Blood
 Adannu  dana  Edono  appointed time, deadline
Addaru Addar   march
 A-ddu  adi    now
 Adi  Hal Adi    up to now
 Aga  aha    this
 agappu  gulpa  Gepo  wing
Ago Eigo or Eiguta   grim, somber
 Aggu-bbu  Guv-va  Kosso  Cup
 agrabu  agirva  Eqarbo  scorpion
 Aharru  Kharraya    To be the last
 Aha Aha  Kha Kha    one by one
Airu Iyaar   may
Akhana Lakha   here
 Akhalu  Khalla    To eat
Aklu Shatu Kala Shtaya   dine
Akhiltu Khalta   eating
 Akhatu  Khatta  Hotho   Sister
 Akhatuti  Khatuta     sisterhood
 Akhirtu  Kharaita    the last female
 Aksu  Asga    Dangerous or difficulat
  Akhu  Akha- Akhuna     Brother
 Akhutu  Akhuta    Brotherhood
Aladu yilada or dyala   give birth
 Aladu  Yalda    Boy
Ala'aiu Alahaia   god like, godly
 Alapu  Alpa    a thousand
Almaiu Almaia   secular, worldy
Alulu Alula   street
Amni shapiruti Amni shapiri   fine arts
Ammani Manni   dishes
 Ammtu amtta  Amtho  handmaid, female servant
Anaiu anaya   egoist
Anaiutu Anaiuota   ego selfishness
 Ana-hu  Ta-nu-hee  Enohu  to sigh
 Annaku  Tannika    tin
 Annu  Anni    These
 Anutee Annee  Atoon  these
Apen Apen   even though, even if
Apiu Yipa   to bake
Appupu Tupa   fold
 Arabayu  Arabaya    Arab
Arbasar Arbasar   fourteen
 Arba'u  Arba    Four
Arbi Arbi   forty
Ardikhalu  Ardikhla  Ardikhlo Builder, Architect
Ardekhlutu Ardikhluta   architecture
Arkhu Yarkha  Yarho   Month
Arkhisham Yarkhaya   monthly
Arku Yarikha   tall, long
 Arkhutu  Arkita    Guest female
 Arku  Yarga    green, greenery
Armelu Armela   widowed
 Armaltu  Arrmilta    widow
Armannu Arminta   pomegranate
Arnubu Arnva   hare, rabit
Arratu Saartaa   curse
 Arzazu  Arza    Cidar
 Askupatu  Sgupta    Treshold
 Aspatu  Spadita    Pillow
Asqu Asqa   arduos
Asqutu Asquta   dififculty
Asrantu Yasratna   fastener
 Asru  Gassra    Palace
Asu As-ya  Osyo  Physician
 Asharu  Shara  Shara  Begin
 Assirtu  Assirta    Slave woman
Ashu-raitu Ashu-raita , Atturaita, Suraita  Othuroyo  Assyrian female





 Assyrian male
Asuto Asiuta   medicine
Asuriu yesura   bond
Asu sha Kaki Asya d' Kiki   dentist
Atta At    you
Attiru Attirra   opulent, rich
Attu Atta   flag
Attu-nu Ah-tune  Atun  you plural
Attunu Attuna   furnace
Atutatti Atutaeit   verbatim, literally
Awu Hawa   air
Awaiu Hawaya   aerial
Aykani  Ayka    Where
Azlantu Azlanta   spinster
Babilu  Babil    Babylon
Babilaju  Babilaya    Babylonian
Babbu Babba   dad
Baduqtu Badugta   girl scout
Badugu Baduga   explorer
Balbatu Balbata   spark
Baqqalu Baggal   grocer
Baqqaritu Boograita   cow girl
Bakhiu Bakhaya   weeper
Ba-khu Bkha  Bokhe  to weep, Sob
Balkhudaiu Balkhud   alone, by himslef
Ballutu Balluta   Oak tree, acorn
Ba-nu Bna-ya or Bnna  Bone  to build
Banuiu Banuia   constructive
Bar-atri Bar-atri   compatriot
Baragu Mabragta   gilmer
Bariu Baruia   creative
Bar-marriti Maretti   parishioner
Bargalu Bargala   echo
Ba-ra-qu  Bra-qa    to flash
Bararu  Barra  Boreq  glimer, to shine
Barruku Barukha   congratulate
Bar tegurit Bar Tagra   trading partner

Bshala = cooking


  to cook
 Basmu= sweet odour

 Bisma =

Basama =




Battibatti  Bat-va-tti  Beytoye  neighbourhood, households
Batultu Btulta   virgin
Bazu Bza   to drill
Behiru Bhira   adept, careful
Beldababi  Bal-dva-vi Eledbobo  adverseries, enemies
Berataiu Brataia   girlish
Besirtu Bsirota   shrotcoming
Besranaiu Besranaia   fleshy
Besranu Besrana   chubby
Bet-apie Bet-yipa   bakery
Bet libshi Bet lvasha   dressing room
Bet-shamshi Bet-shimsha   solarium
Bet-shamshi Bet-shimsha   solarium
Bibu  Beiva    drainage
 Bi-khi-tu  Bkhay-ta  Bkhotho  weeping
Binianaiu Binianaia   structural
Birinni  billan  Beynayn  between us
Bir-gu  bir-qa  Barqo  lightning, elecricity
Blasu Blasa   squeez, to bruize
Bur-ku  bir-ka  Barco  knee
Bi-shu  Bi-sha  Bisho  evil, sinister
Bish dubari Bish dubari   misconduct, evil conduct
Bish-gaddu Bishgada   ill fated
Bi-ituBintu  Bai-ta  Beyto  house
Brara   daughter
Birtu = fort Birta = palace residence of bishop    
Bit-etgi Bit-etgi   Museum
Bizu sha gdili Biza d' gdila   keyhole
Bnenashu bnenashi   folks, people
Battalu Bttala   voiding, annul
Bulbalu Bolbala   confusion, perplexity
Bu-ru   bee-ra  Biro  water well
Buhuru Bukhra    first born son
Bukhurtu Bukhurta   first born daughter
Bulbalu Bulbala   commotion,
Buqagu Bagta   mosquito
Buqtu = toy Bugta = doll    
Busamu Busama   enjoyment
Dahhubu Dahva   gold
Daggalu Dugglla   lie, sham
Daia-nu  dai-ana  Dayono  judge
Daia-nu-tu  daia-nu-ta  Dayonutho  judgeship
Dakru Dkhara   rememberance
Dalapu dlapa   leak
Damanaiu Dimmanaia   related to blood
Dmikhu Dmikha   asleep
Damiu Dmaya   resemble
Damiutau Damiuta   likeness, analogy
Dam-mu  dim-ma  Dmo blood
Dammi Dimme   teers
Dangu Tugniga   neat
 Dannu  Dannana    strong, mighty, vigilant
 Danu  Dna/ Dnaya   to try a case
Daqqaqu  daqiqa  Daqiqo  tiny, small
Daqqu Dayga   minute, small, short
Daru Dora   era, cnetury
Darrugu Darrga   grade, rank
Darasu   Doosh  Dras  push away
Darshu Drasha   expound, argue
Darziqu Darzi   dress maker
 Dayyanu  Dayyana    Judge
Dayyanutu  Dayyanuta    Judgeship
Debu Deba   bear
Demut Dimyout   quasi
Deru Derra   monastery
Deraiu Deraia   monk of monastery
Detu Daata   chewing gum
Deyutu Deyuta   ink
Diashu Diasha   trample
Dilanaiu Dilania   special, characteristic
Dilpu Dlapa   leakage
Diletu Dilaiuta   trait
Dimtu  Dim-ei-ta  Demítho   tear
Dinu  Dya-na  Doen  to judge
Dishpu  Doosha  Debsho   honey
Dubaraiu Dubaraia   related to moral, conduct,
Dubaraiutu Dubaraiuta   behaviour
Dugelta Dagalta   to lie
Dukranu Dukhrana   rememberance
Duppa  Darppa     page
Duraiu Doraia   periodical, realted to century
Durashu Durasha  

debate, discussion


Akkadian/Assyrian Contemporary Assyrian Eastern Dialect Contemporary Assyrian Western Dialect  Meaning
Pronounce A's as in Ant
pronouce A Before R or L as in father 
pronounce "I" as in 'diva'
Ebbubu  Abbueba or Shabeba  Abubo  flute
E-be-ru Eba-ra  Ebro  to cross, to enter
Edan damhi Dan d' Dmaha   bedtime
Edantaiutu bdanaiuta   punctuality
E-gir-tu E-gar-ta  Egartho  Letter
Eglu Khag-la  Haqlo  field, farm
Eiadu Eiada   habits, customs
Eitu rushmetu Eita Rushmaita   official church
Eka Eka   where
Ekanutu Eykanuta   situation, state, whereabout
Eka-llu Hak-la  Qalío  palace
Ekaku kha-ka  Hkoko  to scratch






 First perosn male

First person female

Ekaku Khaka   to scratch
Eliati Eliati   upplands
Eleppu Elppa  Elpho  Ship
Elle All    On upon
Eli rushani Al-rushani   on shoulders
Emmama Hammima   hot, heated
Elmesu Almas   diamond
Elu Elul  ulyo  High
Elulu Eilul   September
Elulu Ellul  Eloyd  to be high
Ema Ma    whoever
Emamu Khima   to be hot
Emanutu Haymanuta   credence, belief
Ememu Khamima    to run temprature
Emgu Amgu, Amguta    deep
Emsu Khimsa   Sour
Emeru Khmara  Hmoro  Ass, donkey
Enu eina  yno  eye
Enzu ezza  Ezo  goat
 Epegu  khpaga    to embrace
 Epikhu  Npakha    to blow



Epra  pro dirt, dust
Epidu  kupta    cheese
Epu pia   to bake
Erbeser  Arbasar    fourteen
Erubtu Erovta   friday
Esadu Khzada   harvest,
 Eseru  Assyra    slave imprisoned
Espugu Espuga   sponge
Eshraiu Esraia   tenfold
Eshru Esra  sro ten
Estaru Astar   lining
Etteru Attera  tiro One who has in abundance, rich
Ettiru Nettara  Noturo to protect
 Ezeru  Saara    to curse
 Ezu  Eza    goat female
Gabaiati Gabiati   elections
Gahuku Gahuka   dimple
 Gal-ati  Ghel-yatee    alkali
 Gabru  Gabbara    hero, mighty
 Galu  Glaya    to burn or fry
Galuputa Glapta   engraving, carving
Gamkhu Gamkha  Qamho flour
Gammalu Gomla  Gamlo camel
 Gamru  Gmira  Gmiro  complete, tough
Gangaztu Gangazta   disgust
Gannanutu Gannanuta   gardening
 Ga-nu  Gan-ya    Cane
Gappu Gulpa  Gepho feather
Garabu Gar-buni  Garibo to come near
Garadu Grada   scrape
Garashu Grasha   traction, to pull
Garbanu Girvana   leper
Garru Garra or Gyarra  Hophar to dig out
Garnu Garna   horn
Garuptu Garupta   scraper, bulldozer
Gashtu Gishta  Qeshto bow
Gashumu Gushma   body, physical being
Gattu = hand Gatta   hand, handle
Gawaniutu Gawaniuta   general
Gazranaiuta Gazarta   island, isle
Gebaiutu Gevayta   beggary, begging
Gebbanaiu Gebbania   sidewise
Gebine Gevine   Eyebrows
Geshanaiu Gidshanaia   accidental
Gele Reshi Resha Gilya   bare head
Genabtu Gnavta   stealing, larceny
Genihu Gonha   calamity
Gensaiutu Gensaiuta   sextuality
Gensu Gensa   gender
Geshru Geshra   bridge
Gilgulu Galgola   Pulley,
Gildu Gilda   hide, fur, skin
Gilidu Gdila   ice
Gir-ba-an-nu Gor-ba-an-na  Qurbono offering
Gishru Gishra  Gishro bridge
Gubaie Gubaia   election
Gushu Gishya  Quro cold
 Guh-lu  Kokh-la    eyelid coloring
 Gu-hu-lu (h=kh)  Kokh-la    Alchohol
Gunkhu Gunkha   calamity
Gurbitu Gervita   stocking
Gushmaiu Gushmaia   Physical, corporal, bodily
"H" or 'Kheit' is a softer version of "Kh" 'Khap' a sound which
emanates from the throat.
Hadatu Kudata  Hadeth  renewal, to be new
Hadutu Khaduta  Hadutho  joy
haddu Khdda  Hodyo to rejoice
 Haddi  Khiddia   happy
 Ha'iru = husband  Ha'ira= freeman    
 Halaqu  Talugee    to lose
 Hamatu  Mahamta    to heat
Halu Hala   vinegar
Hamsu (hamshu) hamsha  Hamsho five
Hanigu Hanuga   strangler
Hanpu hanpa   pagan, heathen
Haparu Hpara   to dig
Harabu Haraba   destroyed, wasteland
Hardelu hardalo   mustered
Haripu haripa   keen, sharp
 Haru  Gyara    to dig out
Haratu Khrata   to engrave
Harurtu Harhirta  Zragrurto throat, laryrnx
Hassinu Hassina  Hasino ax
Hshuhu khshaha   apropriate, entitle, desrving
Hashalu Hshalla  K-sopho crush
Hatanu  Khitna  Hathno son in law
Hatitaiutu Hatitaiuta   cetainty, accuracy
Hatu Hlata   to make a mistake
Hatu Khtta  Hto to sin 
Hedanaiu Hdanaia   singular
Hattiu Hittaia   sinfull
 Hau-hu  ho-ha    peach
Hebibelu Heblu   ivy
Helzunu Helzun   snail
Helap Shumi Hlap Shima   pronoun
Hemimu Hemimu   warm
Hemsanutu Hemsanuta   aidity, sourness
Hemsu Hemsa   acid, sourness
Heshih higri Hashiha l' higri   commendable
Hidutu Haduta   joy, happiness
Hilepu  Khaylappa    willow
Hirshanaiu Kirshanaia   magical
Hirtu = wife  Hirta + free woman    
Herutu Heruta   liberty
Hewataiu Hewataia   zoological
Hiaku Hiaka   itch
Hiatu Hiata   to sew
Hi-te-tu Hhti-ta  Htitho sin, crime
 Hi-ta-ti-ku-nu  Hhtia-tokune    your sins
Hubanu Hubana   loving
Hugu   Hoga   ladder's rung 
Hulapu Hulapa   exchange
Hullupu Khellapa Hullupu willow
Hulmanu Hulmana   health
Huiadu Huiada   unity, union
Hurzo Hurza   Program
Husranu Husrana   lose, disadvantage
Hushbanu Hushbuna   account, accounting
Hutamu Hutama   end
Hutru Hutra   staff, rod, club
Huziru hzuira   pig


Iddu Idda  Ido side , Hand
Idu yeda  Yida  to know
Iggu=Ditch  Gyara     to dig
Ikkaru  Akkara  Acoro farmer, gardner
Illidu Yalidda  Yaludo child
Ilippu Elppa  Elpho ship
Ilutu=divinity Elayoota  Eloyotho highness
Imkhas Mkhaya  Mhoyo to hit or stirke
Immati Imman  Emath when
Imnu yamina  Yamino right hand
Imaru khmara   donkey
Inbu=fruit Anbee  Enbe grapes
Insabtu esagta  Ezaktho ring
Inu Ina  Ayno eye
 I-sha-tu  She-ar-ta   to kindle fire
Isu  Gasa  Kayso  wood
Isuru  Sira    tied
isku Eshka  Seko testicle
Ittimalu Timmal  Ethmol Yesterday
 Ittu  Atta    Flag

K or Kap

kaba-du kav-da  Kabdo liver
kakka-bu kokh-wa  Kawkbo star
 Kakkishu  Kakksha    Rat (Jeelu dialect)
kakku Kacha   weapon
Kal-ba-na-tu Kal-ba-ni-ta   Axe
 Kallatu  Kallta    Daughter-in-law
Ka-lba-tu Ka-lib-ta  Kalbtho bitch
Kal-bu Kal-ba  Kalbo Dog
 ka-la-tu  Kal-ta  Kaltho  daughter-in-law
 Kalu Kuli    Kulo  all
 Kalu Kla   Klo  to stand, to hold back
 Kal-ma-tu (fem) Gal-ma (male)  Kalmo louse, a wingless parasitic insect
 Ka-pa-pu Kya-pa  Kyopho to bend, to bow
 Kar-abu = to bless Grava = (to receive Communion)  Kurobo  
 Kar-mu   Kar-ma  Karmo  vineyard, orchard
 Ka-rru   Kra-ya  Keryo  to be short
 Kar-su   Ker-sa  Kelso  belly, abdomen
 kas-aru  Asa-rra  Esar  to bind, tie
 Kas-htu Gesh-ta  Keshto  Bow
 Kas-pu  Kis-pa  Kespho  silver
 Khaba-bu  Khabi-ba    lover male
 Kha-bu  Khuba  Hubo  to love
 Kha-llu  Kha-lla  Halo  vinegar
 Kha-mma-tu  Kham-ta  Hmotho  Female
 Kha-nugu  Khna-ga  Hnoko  to strangle
 Kha-shlu   Khsha-la  Husopho  to crush
 Kha-si-nu  Kha-si-na  Hasino  ax
 Kha-tta-nu  Khit-na  Hathno son-in-law
Kha-tu   Kha-tu-mi  Huthomo  to end
 Khidutu  Khaduta    joy, happiness
 Khirtu(m)  Khirta    Free woman
 Khuturu  Khutra    scepter
Kiddatu  Khaduta  Hadutho  Joy, happines
 Kima  Kimad  Kmo  according to, as much as
Ki-nna-tu  Ki-nu-ta  Kinutho  Justice
 Ki-nnu  Ki-nna  Kino  just
 Kin-nu  Gin-na  Qeno  nest
 Kir-ku  Kir-kha    land
 Kir-mu  Kar-ma  Karmo  Orchard, Garden
 Kistu  Gai-ssa  Qayso  wood
 Klillu  Klilla    crowm
 Ku-du-ru  Ku-dur-i Khadervanee  Tkhumo  boundry
 Kullu  Kulli  Kulo  all
 Kur-ba-nu  Gur-ba-na    offering
 Kurru  Kurra  Kuro  furnace
 Ku-ssi  Kur-si  Kursyo  (arm) chair
 Ku-ssi-tu  Ku-si-ta  Kusitho  hat, garment hood
 Kutal-lu Gda-lla  Qdolo  back of the neck



Contemporary Assyrian Eastern Dialect

Contemporary AssyrianWestern Dialect









  to cloth oneself








 to pick, pluck

 Li-ba-ki li-nu-ha

 Li-bukh na-yekh


  your heart may have rest




 my hearth








 toungue, langauge




  bad luck, ill faith






Ma-alke=prince plural




Maalkatu= princes

Malikta= Queen




 Mla or mlaya


 to fill




 to burn












 to count








 to favour, obey, respect

Maglutu= broild offering







 architect, surveyor




 to smite




 to fill








 to count, count








Orbit, position of star 












 woman, lady

Maaru = son

 Maaru = young man




 Shamasha Mshamsha


 incantation priest              Deacon




 to forget




 to find




 To clean to wipe



Mashtaita=to give drink


  A drink

Mattati = lands

 Matvati = villages


 lands, villages




 To die




 land, country




 to clean - to wahsh




 to wash cloths




 course of time




 favorite, honorable






Minna or Binna














 Poor, weak




 The dead (plural)




 The dead


 Mittuta or Mota









Madaita= to inform










destitute, poor





 Mutanu =plague














Contemporary Assyrian Eastern Dialect

Contemporary Assyrian Western Dialect






 Nabu = to proclaim



 To speak (in prophecy) To utter












Noh to

 to rest





Napahu= to blow or smith




 to blow








 life, breath of life


















 Naasa or Nyasa


 to bite




 to guard




 to kiss

Nihtu (f)



 peaceful, at rest

Nihu (m)



 restful, peaceful




 woman from Nineveh




 my yoke














 Nasha-Nakhraya= foreigner














 hostility, unfriendliness




 light, fire

At-ti-ma na-nar-at sha-mi

 At-ey-vet nura d' sh-ma-ya


 you are the light of the heaven






Akkadian/Assyrian Contemporary Assyrian Eastern Dialect Contemporary Assyrian Western Dialect  Meaning
Pagru  Pagra  Phagro  corpse, body
Pakadu  Pgada  Phkodo  to appoint, to command
Parasu  Prasha  Phrosho  to separate
Paraku  Prakha  Phrak  to fly
Parsaju  Parsaja    Persian
Pashahu Pshakha  Phshah  to be at rest
Parzillu Prizla  Pharzlo  iron
Pasharu Pshara  Phshoro  to disolve
Patu Ptakha  Phtah  to open
 Padanu  Pdana    plough
Pelamu Pilma    defilement, preversion
Pillakku Pillga    spindle
Pirru         perhaps  Pillu Pilla  Philo  elephant
Pitu Ptakha  Phtah  to open
Pu Pumma  Phumo  mouth
Pukhu = the breath

 Pokha = wind

npakha = to blow with mouth

Putu Patta  Photho  face
Qabaru Qvara  Qbar  to bury
Qalalu Qalila  Qalilo  small, tiny, light-weight
Qalati Qaliatee    alkali
Qannu  or qinnu Qin-na Qinna   nest
Qarabu Qravtana  Krobo  war, soldier, enemy
Qarnu Qarna  Qarno  horn
Qastu Qishta  Qeshto  bow
Qatu Gatta    hand (handle)
Qemku Qamha  Qamho  flour
Qeribu Qarbune  Qaribo  to draw near
Raatu Rehtta  Rehto  water course
Rabshag  Rubshaga   cup-bearer or chief butler
Rabu  Raba  Rabo  great, large
 Rabutu  Rabta    Great female
Rakabu  Rekaba  Rakhobo  to ride
 Ramu  Rama    high, tall
Raqadu  Reqada  Reqdo  to dance
Re'u  Raya    shepherd
Re' utu  Ra' uta    shephership
Remu  Rekhma  Rahme  mercy
Rikku  Raikha Riho  smell
Reshu Resha    Risho  head, beginning
Ri-mi-nu (m)  Rakh-ma-na    mercyful
Rimni-tu (f)  Rakh-man-ta    Mercyful (f)
Rimmu  Rimma    wild bull, buffalo
 Rishatu  Rishata = greatest    the beginning, eldest female
Ruaqu  Ragga  Rahiqo  to be distant, to escape
Rubbo  Rubba  Rabo  Chief, leader
Ruku  Rikhga  Ruhko  distant, far
Rukhtu   Rvikta  Rwiho   extensive
 Rukutu  Reguta   distance, being far
Rupsu  Rupsha, Rupshta  Raphsho  shoulder,     shovel
 Sabiru (male)  Shibirta (fem)    bracelet
 Sadaru  Sedra  Sedro  list, to order
 Sagu Syaga  Sog  climb, to go high
 Sa-ha-pu  Skha-pa    to overwhelm
 Saharu Sura  uro  small
 Salmu Salma   Salmo  image
 Salu Saluee   Sali  to pray
Samamu Shmayya  Shayo  heaven, sky
Sammu  Smugga  Sumoqo  red
Sananu  Sanyana  Sono  rival, hater
Sanu Tanee  Tone  to repeat, tell
 Sapacu  Sapagta    to pour put, to empty
Saptu  Sipta  Sephto  lip, edge
Sarahu  Srakha  Sroho  to utter cries of mourning, uncontroled anger
Shamu  Shmaya    sky, heaven
Sinunta  Snuneta    a swallow
Sippu  Sippta    door jam
Sisu  Susa    horse


Akkadian/Assyrian Contemporary Assyrian Eastern Dialect Contemporary Assyrian Western Dialect  Meaning
Sarapu  srapa   to burn , refined silver
Sebu (shebu)  Shavva  Shabío  seven
Seheru  Sura  uro  small, to be young
Shabakhu  shpakha    to pour out
Shaggalu Tgalla  Tqolo  to weigh
Shakhanu  Shkha-na  Shahino  to be warm
Shalamu  Shlama  Shlomo  peace, greeting
Shalamu  Shlama  Shlomo  to be well
 Shalamu  Shu-la-ma    end, to be complete
Shalatu  Shultana  Shalito  to rule
 Shalmish  Shlameit  Bashlomo  peacefully
Shaluhu   Shalukhi  Shloho  to strip off
 Shamashu  Shimsha  Shimsho  the Sun
 Shamau  Shmaya  Shmayo  sky
Shamanu  Tmanya  Tmonyo  eight
Shamatu  Shameta  Shamo  birth mark, brand
 Sham-nu  Shma-na    oil, fat
Shamshi   Shemsha  Shemsho  the sun
Shamu  Shmaya  Shmayo  heaven
Shanati (female)  Sheeni (male)  Shato years 
Shapahu  shpaha    spread, scatter, spill
Shatu  Shta  Shto  to drink
 Shatu  Sheeta  Shato  year
 Shebabbi  Shbabbi  Shbobe neighbors
 Shebu  Shavva  Shabío  seven
 Shedu  Shedda  Shido  demon, evil spirit
  She-mi-e  Shmie    hear
 She-mi-e Tas-li-ti  Shmie Slu-ti    hear my prayer
 Shemu  Shma  Shma  to hear
 Shinesar  Teryesar  Treísar  twelve
 Shuptu  Shopa  Shawtho  place, dwelling, seat
 Shulmu  Shlama  Shlomo  peace
 Shu-mu  She-ma  Shmo  name
 Shutapu  Shotappa  Shawtopho  partner, partaker
 Siamu  Sya-mma  Syomo  insegnia, writing
 Siaqu  eigga  iqo  narrow, tight
 Sibutu  Saybuta  Saybutho  old age
Simmiltu  simmalta  Sebelto  ladder
Si-nu-nu-tu  Snu-ni-ta    swallow
Sippu  Sippa  Sephtho  edge, treshold
Sipru=letter  Sipra  Sephro writing
Siru  Besra  Besro  meat
Sissu  suissa  Susyo  horse
Sittu  shinta  Shentho  sleep
 Succallu  Sucalla    intelligence
Sulamu  Shulama  Shulomo  completion
Sumelu  simmala  Semolo  left
Sumu  Shimma shmo  name
Surru sharuye  Shari  to begin
Taaru  Dyarra    to return
tabaku  Tpakha  Tphah   to pour out, shed
Tabalu  Labuli    to take away
Tabtu  Tobta  Tobtho  goodness, kindness
Tabu  Taba  Tobo  good, pleasant
Tahumu  Tekhuma  Thumo  boundry
Talmidu  Talmidda  Talmido  student, Apprentice
Tamaru Tamer  Tmar  to bury
Tamati  Yamti  Yamotho  seas
Tamtu  Yamta    sea
 Tamitu  Mamita  Mawmtho  oath
Tamu  Mami  Mawme  to swear
Taniku Tannukee  Tanah  to sigh, lament
Tapahu Tapukhi  Kphoho  to pour out
Taradu Trrada  Trad  to send, expel
Tarbitu Tarbita    To rear or educate
Targmanu Targmana  Taregmono  translator
Targmon Targmanna  Taregmono  dargoman
Taru Dyara  oro  return
Taslu  Sluta    prayer
Tayartu Dyarta  orto   to return
Tegal Tgalla  Tqal  to weigh
Temuru Tamuri  Tmar   to bury
Tesliti Sluti  Sluthy  my prayer
Teslitu Sluta  Slutho  prayer
Tibnu Tuyna  Tebno  straw
Tillu Tella  Telo hill, mound
Tinuru Tanura  Tanuro oven
Tishu Tisha  Teshío  nine
 Tulu  Tuvulta    worm
 Turu  Tawra  Tawro  Bull



Contemporary Assyrian; Eastern Dialect

Contemporary Assyrian; Western Dialect


 U = oo




















 all day, daily

 Umu Aga

 Aha yuma


 this day








 road, way




 Go, Be on your way








 Design, image



Yesura = connection


 to bound- to tie





 to take, to carry away






 Za-ki-pu = wooden post

 Zki-pa = cross



 Zakhiru (male)




 Zakhirtu (female)







to sing




 singer (male)




 singer (female)

 Zanu = to overlya with jewl

 Zannat = Jewelery




 Bar Zerra



















 Zuzu= half a shekel (money)

 Zuza= money

 Zuze= money






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Assyrian Names and Meanings for Boys and Girls

Assyrian Dictionary - The Helsinki Neo-Assyrian Dictionary

Oraham's Dictionary - Dr. Alexander Joseph Oraham

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