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Ethnic and Religious Minorities: And their influence on the ...

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Ethnic and Religious Minorities: And their influence on the political and social environment in Mosul

Jun-16-2000 at 01:46 AM (UTC+3 Nineveh, Assyria)

Last edited on 09/21/2011 at 08:26 PM (UTC3 Assyria) by Atour (admin)
Ethnic and Religious Minorities: And their influence on the political and social environment in Mosul
by Sa'ad Ibrahim Mohammad
Department of the General Security / Iraq

Christianity spread in Iraq, and hence in Mosul, in the middle of the 1st century AD, or around the latter parts of it. Mar Addai, preached in Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula and so did Mar Mari after him. Mar Mari established his church in Seleucia-Ctesiphon at the end of the 1st century AD and became known as "The Church of the East" to distinguish it from the other churches like the Church of Jerusalem, the Church of Antioch, the Church of Alexandria and the rest. Seleucia-Ctesiphon soon after became the Patriarchal See.

The European missionary travelers had little success convincing the Eastern peoples (the authors is referring to the general Muslim peoples) to adopt Christianity. They found that the Christians of the Middle East, the original inhabitants of those regions, were Nestorians and Jacobites, different than those in Europe, being Catholic and Protestants. They thought that it was their moral duty to guide these lost people to God's true ways! They established missions which became very active and powerful and succeeded to infiltrate in the al-Sir-yan community and established a separate sect known as al-Siryan al-Katholik (Syrian or Sir-yan Catholics). Those who refused to follow the Latin missionaries added the Orthodox term to their name to distinguish them from the Syrian Catholics and hence became known as the Syrian Orthodox (or the original Syrians).

Meanwhile, the Nestorians faced the same treatment, many of them followed the Latin missionaries and it was hence necessary to change their title too. These Nestorians who followed Rome could not call themselves Syrians (Sir-yan), because the term Syrians (Sir-yan) in general meant the Syrian Orthodox. It was not possible to call them Syrian Catholics so there will be no confusion between them and those Jacobites who became Catholics. Therefore, since the original Church had its see in Seleucia-Ctesiphon and Baghdad, and since Baghdad was confused with Babylon, it was decided to call the Nestorians who became Catholics as Chaldeans. Their Patriarch was called Patriarch of Babil over the Chaldeans.

This term. Chaldean, given to those who separated from the Nestorians, is a term given by Pope Eugene IV since there were historically Chaldeans who lived in Bet Nahrain. George Habib wrote in an article titled "Aramiya Siryaniya" in a magazine called "al-Turath al-Sha'abi' page 86 stating: "It is clear from this that those who call themselves Chaldeans are not the descendants of the Chaldeans of antiquity".

The Chaldeans in and around the city of Mosul differ from the Chaldeans who live in the mountainous regions. The Chaldeans of the mountainous regions are less sensitive to the Arab National sense and tend to believe that Arabs are against them. Contrary to the Chaldeans of the city of Mosul and the neighboring towns and villages who are proud of their Arabic heritage and Arabic national belonging. The Ba'ath organizations with the help of many clergy have succeeded to implant the Arab national awareness among all Chladeans in Mosul with the protection of some of their Christian linguistic and folklore values.

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Assyria \ã-'sir-é-ä\ n (1998)   1:  an ancient empire of Ashur   2:  a democratic state in Bet-Nahren, Assyria (northern Iraq, northwestern Iran, southeastern Turkey and eastern Syria.)   3:  a democratic state that fosters the social and political rights to all of its inhabitants irrespective of their religion, race, or gender   4:  a democratic state that believes in the freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture in faithfulness to the principles of the United Nations Charter — Atour synonym

Ethnicity, Religion, Language
» Israeli, Jewish, Hebrew
» Assyrian, Christian, Aramaic
» Saudi Arabian, Muslim, Arabic
Assyrian \ã-'sir-é-an\ adj or n (1998)   1:  descendants of the ancient empire of Ashur   2:  the Assyrians, although representing but one single nation as the direct heirs of the ancient Assyrian Empire, are now doctrinally divided, inter sese, into five principle ecclesiastically designated religious sects with their corresponding hierarchies and distinct church governments, namely, Church of the East, Chaldean, Maronite, Syriac Orthodox and Syriac Catholic.  These formal divisions had their origin in the 5th century of the Christian Era.  No one can coherently understand the Assyrians as a whole until he can distinguish that which is religion or church from that which is nation -- a matter which is particularly difficult for the people from the western world to understand; for in the East, by force of circumstances beyond their control, religion has been made, from time immemorial, virtually into a criterion of nationality.   3:  the Assyrians have been referred to as Aramaean, Aramaye, Ashuraya, Ashureen, Ashuri, Ashuroyo, Assyrio-Chaldean, Aturaya, Chaldean, Chaldo, ChaldoAssyrian, ChaldoAssyrio, Jacobite, Kaldany, Kaldu, Kasdu, Malabar, Maronite, Maronaya, Nestorian, Nestornaye, Oromoye, Suraya, Syriac, Syrian, Syriani, Suryoye, Suryoyo and Telkeffee. — Assyrianism verb

Aramaic \ar-é-'máik\ n (1998)   1:  a Semitic language which became the lingua franca of the Middle East during the ancient Assyrian empire.   2:  has been referred to as Neo-Aramaic, Neo-Syriac, Classical Syriac, Syriac, Suryoyo, Swadaya and Turoyo.

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