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Religious Organizations Network

Indigenous Peoples Under the Rule of Islam, Part IV

Posted: Friday, September 22, 2001 at 7:28 AM CT


The Khaliphah – Successor of Mohammad

The Religious Edict (Fatwa)
Turbulent Waters
Cruelty and Coercion
Land Ownership


The Khaliphah – Successor of Mohammad

Old Islamic governments did not have a written law or judicature. The head of the consultative council pronounced the edict according to the inspiration of the prophet that later became the rule of law, now called Hadeeth. Most of the revelations and pronouncements of Mohammad contained legal and moral guidelines, some of which were memorized by the immediate associates and followers of the prophet or written down on parchment, cloth or patches of leather by scribes. The oral ones where recited in rhythmic prose when the need arose. Many adherents learnt the verses by heart and later handed them down to others by rote learning. Such pronouncements became the basis of the Islamic culture. Judgements emanated from the practical life and daily teachings. Preaching and practice of Islam culled such rules that were later codified and became enmeshed in their cultural custom, hence compiled into a holy book, the Koran, as it is known today, and Hadeeth, after the death of the prophet.

With the unification of the nomadic tribes and steady ascendance of Islam into an Umma Nation, religion and state became inextricably bound together. They became interlocked and functioned in conjunction with each other; never separately, under the sole leadership of the Prophet Mohammad, the supreme head of Islam and the Islamic Umma Nation. His immediate followers from the inner circle of leaders became enforcers of the Islamic law and executioners, by order of the prophet, basing their rule on the Islamic ideals.

In the absence of the prophet, a member of his inner circle of power led the public prayer. In the later years of the Prophet, his Aide and close companion Abu Bakr led the prayers in his absence. The successor of leadership emerged from within that inner circle of power of the prophet after his death, and became known as the Khaliphah, successor of the prophet. The succession of the prophet is the highest office in Islam. The authority of the Khaliphah is absolute and his term of office is for life.

Before the death of the prophet, a member of the inner circle had asked Mohammad who would succeed him in leadership after his death? It is said that the prophet’s reply was “Aqrabokom ilayya yakhlifoni – the nearest of you to me shall succeed me.” Whether “nearest to” meant in ideology and Islamic faith; or in proximity to distance (i.e., a member of the inner circle being nearest to him at his deathbed in his last dying moments); or in affinity to him in kinship by marriage, or blood relationship, has since been in dispute and unresolved. Immediately after the death of the prophet, this leadership was pledged to Abu Bakr. Yet, Mohammad’s son in-law Ali, also being a member of the prophet’s inner circle but not being present at the time of Mohammad’s death, also claimed the title of Khaliphah.

On Mohammad’s death, the Moslems of Medina pledged the leadership of succession to Abu Bakr by acclamation, due to his close companionship to Mohammad and being at his bedside, as well as being the nearest to the prophet at the time of his death. Abu Bakr thus gained the successor’s office by public and popular acclamation.

The issue of succession to Mohammad’s leadership has since become the bone of contention in Islam, in particular between the Shi’ah (Ali’s followers) and the Sunni (the traditional followers of Abu Bakr). This contentious issue, as yet, has not been resolved.

The office of the Khaliphah is seen to hold both divine and temporal power. This revered symbol of the office of the Khaliphah is enshrined by the doctrine of the Koran and the Hadeeth and headship of the supreme commander of the Islamic army. As Khaliphah, he is the sectarian guardian of the Mohammadan religion and the prophet’s household, wealth and property. As a secular leader, he is the absolute authority and protector of the (umma) Islamic Nation, its state treasury and one fifth (20%) of the booty.

During the Ottoman reign of Selim I (1512-1520), the Ottoman Turks usurped the title of the Khaliphah from the Janissary Mamlukes in Cairo, Egypt. By this usurpation, the Ottomans acquired and assumed the last Khaliphah title.

In 1924, during the reign of the Turkish leader Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the link to the title of the Khilaphah was broken. Subsequently, Ataturk established his government on a secular basis, adopted a Western style parliamentary system and re-formed his country under the name of Modern Turkey.

Turkey’s abrogation of the Khaliphah title and his power has since caused a serious crisis in the Islamic Umma Nation and created a vacuum in the traditional leadership of their government system. Although many have attempted, no Moslem person has as yet been able to legitimately claim the Khaliphah title for absence of a direct lineal descent from the Prophet Mohammad. Since the fall of the Khaliphah post in 1924, the struggle to claiming this supreme leadership post continues unabated. The struggle is between the two rival sects, the Sunni camp through pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr, and that of the Shi’ah who claim allegiance to Mohammad’s son in-law Ali.

The Religious Edict (Fatwa)

In the Islamic states of the Abode of Peace (Dar Al-Silm), the Grand Mufti heads the Islamic ecclesiastical court and exercises a large concession of power by the hereditary right of his title. His legitimacy to power stems from the fact that he is the official expounder of the Islamic law. In the absence of a recognised Khaliphah, the Grand Mufti gains the legitimacy of the custodianship of the title, interpretation of the Koran and the Hadeeth that helps to formulate Islamic law. His sectarian edicts overrule any civil law.

The teachings of the Koran and the Hadeeth throughout the ages has led to the conservative elements in Islam to a narrowed and radical interpretation which see the use of violence as a normal and acceptable means to attaining their Umma Nation’s global dominance. The quest for global dominance through Jihad resembles the struggle of a stray man in a desert running about in empty circles, in an effort to finding his path out of his wilderness to quench his thirst. Yet, his attempts are but a wasteful effort in chasing a mirage.

In an Islamic state, a decree issued by a civil court is secular judgement. A decree issued by an ecclesiastical court is a religious edict (fatwa). This religious pronouncement is issued by the (Shari’a) religious court made up of the theologians: expounders of the Islamic law (Ayatollahs, Ulama, Fuqaha’, Mojtahidoun, Muftis and Imams). They are jurisprudents, scholars and religious legists, versed in Islamic law. By virtue of the title of the Grand Mufti and the power vested in him as the legal interpreter of the Koran and the Hadeeth, the decisions issued by him stand.

The Mufti is also able to exercise this Fatwa as a judicial decision for or against a person or event. Because of the religious nature of the (Shari’a) religious court, any fatwa that the religious court pronounces becomes official and binding. Depending on the circumstances and the elements involved, a fatwa may absolve or convict a committed act, and the person implicated in the act, is judged accordingly. Once issued, the fatwa must be enforced.

The fatwa decree, more often, shackles the person against whom it has been issued. It imposes restrictions on the will and the freedom of individual choice. In other words, he cannot express himself freely or choose the way of life he wants to pursue. Since such a (fatwa) edict emanates from religious teachings, it becomes irrevocable.

When the clergy, headed by the Grand Mufti pronounces a fatwa against an offender, an apostate or a marked target, it becomes binding and enforceable. The life of the person in question hangs in the balance. The religious authority working with the state ostracizes him. He becomes a marked person, condemned and doomed. If the condemned is married, the clergy dissolve his marriage. He loses his spouse, his children and his wealth. Everything he owns is transferred to his wife and family. He loses all his assets. He is left with nothing except the clothes on his back. He loses his civic rights. More frighteningly, he loses custodianship on his life, and the right of police protection, a risk to his personal safety, in public.

In the case of a marked target, the Islamic organisation concerned, in coordination with its member network, scheme discreetly to attack and destroy the marked target, without warning, to inflict maximum damage and loss of life in execution of the Fatwa. The Mujahideen and their supporters pride themselves on such barbaric acts by parading in the streets expressing satisfaction for the execution of their fatwa and in jubilation of the success of their destructive mission.

If the person against whom a fatwa has been issued happens to be living within the realm of the Abode of Peace, he will be arrested on sight. He will be held under custody, in isolation of interns, for his own personal safety. Government authority, under the guidance, of the Shari’a religious court, will give him every chance to forgo his beliefs that stray from the interpreted Islamic teachings or repent of his misdeed. The authority will make every effort to point out to him that he has made a grievous error and try to convince him to reconsider and return to the religion of Allah and his prophet. He is repeatedly warned that his refusal to repent will lead to severe punishment or execution. Should he persist in his refusal, he will be put in complete isolation, barred from being visited by anyone. His family will eventually be obliged to deny him and distance themselves from him. While still in custody, very little will be heard about him and eventually be forgotten. How and when the sentence will be carried out, is decided between the state and the clergy. In most cases, rarely a third party is allowed to intervene.

If living in the Abode of War, in a non-Moslem country, outside the Islamic realm, in hiding or under an assumed name, the order for his execution becomes direct. Depending on the circumstances, his elimination will be carried out overtly or in clandestine. The call, by the Islamic clergy, would be for any “good” Moslem who chances the person against whom the edict has been issued to be killed on sight.

Being marked by the clergy as an apostate, killing such a person is not considered homicidal. The killer’s action is in response to the religious call for enforcement of the (fatwa) edict. It is the duty of every “good” Moslem to purge such a person from amongst them. A blasphemer or apostate, by pursuing another religion, demeans and repudiates the Islamic faith. It is an unpardonable insult to the religion and the prophet.

Some fatwas remain binding and enforceable indefinitely until fulfilled. The executioner is exonerated. He is absolved from crime and from all acts of sin and guilt. He is vindicated and venerated by his community. The (Fatwas) religious edicts issued against British author Salman Rushdie and the Bangladeshi writer Nasrina Taslim are two living examples.

Depending on the interpretation and classification of the acts, pronounced fatwas vary in their degree of severity. Some are very lenient and humane, others harsh to the extreme. Some are pardonable while others are not and carry the death sentence even if the offender shows remorse and repents.

Fatwas are pronounced anywhere in the world and for any reason or against persons of any religion that has insulted Islam. Members of the Islamic clergy act as the defenders of Islam, and their word is final.

Like the Spanish Inquisition of the Medieval Ages that controlled the secular life of the public, and suppressed intellectual freedom of expression, the religious edict (fatwa) restricts the individual Moslem to a certain code of ethics. It makes sure that he or she remains in the fold, observe the Islamic rites and rituals and at no time steps out of line, else he or she would be meted with corporal punishment, regardless of age and gender. The religious edict (fatwa) is not only a constant reminder but also a threat to those who might dare break away and choose a different way of life. Without the religious edict (fatwa), the clerics would have difficulty controlling Islamic society. Pluralism and democracy are seen as enemies of Islam.

Turbulent Waters

The march of Jihad for deliverance of the world from the evils of the West continues with all intensity. Islamic states of the Abode of Peace have nearly overrun the whole of the Middle East, the tip of North Africa and made a mess of the Indian Sub-Continent by clipping its wings. Starting with the first wing, they called Pakistan. Later, they clipped India’s second wing, the eastern side of India, and named it East Pakistan (now called Bangladesh, after claiming independence from West Pakistan in 1971). In collaboration with other independence seekers, like the Sikhs for “Khalistan”(derived from the Arabic word [khalas] meaning deliverance), in Punjab, and the growing number of Jihad separatists, they are now strangling Kashmir.

Presently, Dar Al-Silm states are concentrating their efforts on the Balkans. Their plan appears to be to control the scattered patches and buffer zones that fall within the borders of Albania, Bosnia and Kosovo to consolidate their hold on them and create protective enclaves towards future secession. Once these border gaps and buffer zones are secured, they can be used as springboards to expand further outwards. Meanwhile, the Albanian insurgents maintain a low profile, awaiting strengthening support from the Abode of Peace States, in order to resume with their acts of terror and destabilization of the region to capture and bring under their control more territory.

Islam uses Greece and Italy as transit points into Albania, and as a backdoor to infiltrate into Europe. Its Moslem arrivals use Albania as a refuge island and Kosovo as the launching base for their expansion. Their aim is to counter balance the number of their population in their favour.

The ultimate aim of wave after wave of Moslem immigrants flooding the shores of Europe is political more than economic. They initially reject Western democracy and abhor Christian culture. They had not maintained a high standard of living in their own country of origin anyway, showing little appreciation of the Red Cross and efforts of other Christian Aid organizations. Their exodus to Europe is not to embrace Christian values or blend in with the Western culture, but their ultimate aim is to stretch farther the borders of their Abode of Peace states, as planned.

Their aim is to fulfil their hidden agenda of reclaiming Greater Albania, with a view to expanding farther, reminiscent of the former glory of the Ottoman Empire, bringing the whole Balkan region under the rule of Islam as did the Arabs to the Middle East after World War I. Hit with a wave of nostalgia after the collapse of communism, memories of the old days of their past conquests have been reactivated. Their intent is to regain their former glory and hold firm to their gains.

Later, the Islamic states of the Abode of Peace will turn their attention to the ASEAN countries (Association of South East Asian Nations) in the South Pacific like Singapore, Thailand, the Philippines and Timor and enhance their struggle against them. It is an on-going process. Though unnoticeable, the process grinds and continues to grind with care and exceeding slow pace, with spasmodic violent acts and killings of the Christians to restrict their freedom and create fear. It is a way of life to them.

Still worse to come is the Caucasus that has now become a hostile frontier. The forces of the militant mujahideen wait for the opportune moment in time, then like a tidal wave, they will engulf the whole region and declare a large chunk of it an independent Islamic state. The Mujahideen backed by militant Islamic regimes come well prepared, with a deadly surprise of suicidal attacks. Their pattern of destruction seems to have taken a permanent shape that began with the first suicidal bomb blast against the American Marine in October 1983 in Beirut, Lebanon that killed over 240 Americans.

Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Syria have long swallowed up Assyria. Turkey has already swallowed up part of Armenia and about seventeen per cent (17%) of Eastern Cyprus. Syria is in the process of swallowing up the whole of Lebanon. Pakistan is determined to help the Kashmiri separatists to break away from India and declare Jammu-Kashmir an Islamic state, under the umbrella of the Islamic umma nation. Next in line could be Armenia, to allow the Islamic states of the Middle East to link with the Moslem dominated region in the Caucasus. Likewise, Ethiopia is another potential target because of its importance as a source of water supply to the Nile.

Allah’s Mujahideen armies stop at no frontier. Even China’s far West has in recent years experienced sporadic terrorist activities. China may soon brace itself for a show of force by the Mujahideen in the region of Mazar (meaning “shrine”, a visitation for adherents of the Islamic religion) and Xaidulla (pronounced “Zaid-Allah”, meaning “Allah’s bounty”).

Indonesia, before withdrawing from East Timor, took hundreds of thousands of Christian hostages to West Timor. Its militias burned down its towns and villages, massacred its people and left the country in utter ruin. The Moslem Moros have already invaded the southern villages in the Philippines. In early August 1996 they landed hundreds of armed militiamen on the Island of Mindanao in the Southern Philippines and invaded Christian villages. They declared about 15 provinces in the south as Moro district and ordered the Christians to leave and abandon certain areas or face death.

Unless the world community acts, and acts quickly, to tighten security and shut down the so called Islamic religious schools and militia training centres and refugee camps in the Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon and Syria and other Arab/Islamic states, violence will escalate. It is the duty of the UN and the international community to warn governments implicated in jihad activities that they are in breach of the UN Charter to which they are all signatories. Government officials implicated in such activities that refuse to heed UN warnings pose a constant threat to Western democracy and a risk to the stability of world peace. Legal measures should be sought to indict and try them by the international court of justice. The price for reluctance to remove them will be very high in human suffering.

Recent change of world balance of power as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union calls for a radical change in relationships with various countries. Enemies have become friends and friends enemies. In between there are countries that are hostile to both camps the old and new. Russia and several other East European states are prepared to accept the hand of friendship extended to them by the European Union and that of the United States NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Alliance. China is steadily developing into a free enterprise economic system. While in contrast Islamic countries seem to be stagnant in their style of government, emphasized by Islamic religion and culture. They are ruled by either monarchs or despots for life unless removed by force, leaving their systems unreformed. Islamic governments cannot continue playing the duplicity game.

The UN and the international community should work with moderate Arab leaders to curb the power of the clergy that involve themselves directly in politics or stand in open defiance against secularisation. It is not enough to remove despots of rigid regimes. Their undemocratic and sectarian constitutions require true democratic reform to give the people the freedom, civic rights and justice before the court.

In like manner, if Islamic conservative power challengers wanting change, substitute violence for dialogue as a means to redemption and return to the virtue of Islam, then their method is self-defeating. It confirms to the world, whether as Islamic states, organisations or groups, that they preach and gain power by violence and expand it by the sword.

Lack of personal freedom and individual choice in an autocratic or theocratic system impedes human progress. Pluralism gives a person freedom of choice, within the framework of certain given secular laws of the civil code. Freedom of choice is the most sacred bid in a pluralistic society. Such choice does not infringe on the personal freedom of others. It is an impetus that enhances the mind to excel. Imposition of arbitrary rule and restraints on personal liberty is an impediment to the realization of one’s full potential.

Provocation of the non-Moslem in (Dar Al-Silm) the Abode of Peace States is a daily occurrence. In Egypt, Christian Copt men are daily targets for intimidation, abusive language and assault. Christian Coptic girls are targets for kidnapping by Moslems. Nigeria has recently gone berserk, killing Christians and burning their churches in a barbaric mood. Islamic civil organisations, acting as autonomous units of the state form lynch-type mobs, harass and attack Christian individuals with vicious barbarity to strike fear in the heart of the Christian natives. The state authority treats such onslaughts as minor social disturbances among ethnic groups. It describes such occurrences as a transitional phase of integration. The authorities deny the Christian victims recourse to justice and water down their official complaints, making it impossible to pursue the matter.

Cruelty and Coercion

Islam is a religion of violence, of conquests, and of expansion. Islam is discriminatory, cruel and uncharitable to non-Moslems. The systematic coercion of non-Islamic indigenous cultures is a common form of genocide employed by the Dar Al-Silm Islamic states. Indonesia seems lately to have joined the Jihad march, surpassing Saudi Arabia, in its slaughter of the non-Moslem ethnics. The Abode of Peace has been carrying out ethnic cleansing for centuries. They exercised it in the Arab Peninsula over a thousand years ago - since the inception of Islam, by open defiance and incursion. Ethnic cleansing has since swept throughout the Arab Peninsula and the rest of the Islamic States of the Abode of Peace. Islam has since the fall of the Soviet Union extended its arm of coercion beyond its realm, irrespective of their geographical locations.

Christian and Jewish subjects have long been purged from the Arab Peninsula. The few thousands that have been spared in Yemen are insulated from world media and kept under a blanket of silence. To the world, they do not exist. In Afghanistan, the Taliban rulers have, as recently as May 2001, issued an edict (fatwa) ordering the non-Moslems to wear a concealed yellow patch as an identification of their religion, to be presented on spot-check. According to the ruling Mufti, “to avoid being harassed,” the Afghan Buddhists and non-Moslem communities are required to wear the patch on them at all times. Islam is not a religion of tolerance as they allege. The Arab League, and for that matter Saudi Arabia itself and other Islamic institutions, do not publicly condemn such bullying, to say the least.

When at fault, Islam shelters behind the Arab Christians, mainly Lebanese or Palestinians to save them from trouble. The token Christian defender displays a bewildered face, playing innocent and unhappy on behalf of the accused in an unsuccessful attempt to get the offender out of an awkward problem (discussed further in Part V). There is no difference between the brutish rule of the Taliban and that of the reign of terror of Hitler’s Third Reich. Hitler’s actions were inhumane, so are the Taliban.

Land Ownership

The Abode of Peace states refuse to legitimise ownership of sizeable farmlands, land parcels, groves and orchards of the aboriginal people. They consider all historical sites, relics and landmarks as pagan. Iraq has recently passed a law disallowing Assyrians to buy land in the Province of Mosul (Ninveh). Islam considers the aborigines in their native lands as aliens.

Islam publicly undermines non-Moslem natives and religions. They continue to harass their adherents and demoralise them by closing their churches, and cultural centres, desecrating their holy shrines and by forcing them out of their property. Originally, all the natives owned large tracts of land in their homeland; they do not now. For example, even in Kosovo, the Albanians encourage their children to attack and desecrate Christian churches and holy shrines.

Moslem adults carry out campaigns of terror, driving the native Serbs and gypsies out of Kosovo, disallowing them to return to their homes, in an open defiance of the UN and the international community. The same policy is now being adopted in Macedonia.

The Christian Macedonians are next in line. They are being forcibly evicted from their homes. The Albanian rebels will cleanse the Macedonian territory they have occupied and declare it purely Islamic. These Islamic armed bodies are under the direct control and logistical support of their respective Islamic Albanian host government. Militias that crop up in any part of the Islamic (Umma) nation or Islamic communities abroad, are but synonymous with mujahideen.

The Abode of Peace state governments scheme against the non-Islamic native inhabitants to rob them out of their land rights. This is what occurred during the sixteen years of war in Lebanon. They burnt Christian churches and destroyed their holy shrines. The Christian Copts in Egypt have been facing similar attacks on their churches and shrines for decades. Indonesia, through militias, is currently adopting the same policy; and the butcher Abu Sayyaf and his Mujahideen are following the same pattern in the islands scattered between the Palawan and Jolo of south western Philippines. The list goes on from Nigeria to Chechenia.

Islam creates new settlements for Moslem drifters. They encourage Moslems from overcrowded and over populated regions to settle on aboriginal land, ignoring the land rights of the native owners, by deracination, as is now happening in Irian Barat, formerly known as Irian Jaya, now part of Indonesia, the southern part of Lebanon bordering Israel, scores of Assyrian villages in Northern Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Asyût, Egypt.

Through their Militias and Mujahideen, Islamic governments introduce incentives to encourage new Moslem settlers to stay, with full protection and logistical support of the governments of the day. While on the other hand, they neglect the indigenous inhabitants and leave them to fend for themselves under the abuses of the new settlers. By denying the indigenous people their land rights, they deny their existence as the original rightful landowners. They treat them with cautious indifference and eventually rule them with subdued resistance. It is part of their Islamisation process.

The Islamisation campaign of Nigeria and the southern region of the Sudan is being carried out with the full knowledge and support of several Islamic states of the abode of peace led by the Arab League, since the massacre of the Biafrans in the early 60s.

What is the Arab League set for except to protect its own Islamic interest? Islamic states of the Abode of Peace apply coercive policies to subdue the indigenous communities and raise their children in Islamic faith and culture. Teaching of (Christian) Scriptures is banned. Children are allowed to accompany their parents to worship at church, but Sunday Schools are not allowed to function to teach Christian children Scriptures. Yet Islamic governments provide Moslem migrants in the West with muftis and financial support to build mosques and Islamic schools and institutions, using them as sanctuaries to establish and spread their own Islamic lifestyle and consolidate their communities in preparation of a defiant show of force. Islam, infamous for its religious and ethnic tolerance, prefers not to even allow Christians the freedom of worship in silence in their own native land.

Islamic governments of the Abode of Peace decree that it is the religious duty of a Moslem to support Jihad morally, financially and physically however and whenever possible. Jihad seems to have been officially endorsed as the sixth pillar of Islam, and Pillage as the seventh. Saudi Arabia is in the forefront of the Islamic movement for the Sunni sect and Iran for the Shi’ah. They are the patrons of Islamic (Jihad) holy struggle. Both Saudi Arabia and Iran spend millions of their petrodollars in support of Islamic jihad throughout the world. Saudi Arabia equates with Afghanistan and Pakistan in its policy in support of Jihad. Iran equates with Hezbullah in Lebanon through the Syrian government. The UN watches helplessly unable to intervene for fear of being accused anti-religious.

Related Information
Arab Nationalism

An Interview with Saïd K. Aburish

An Interview with Tariq Aziz

Anti-terrorism seems to be targeting Jihad as individuals and independent groups rather than as an organized system, with independent institutions, each standing on its own, and recognized by their supportive governments as legitimate. In doing so, the West is chasing a shadow rather than aiming at a tangible target (Hiro, 1988: 137; Pryce-Jones, 1989: 277; Aburish, 1995: 115, 137, 145).

Take for instance Nigeria, the Sudan and Algeria and to a lesser degree the militants in Egypt and Pakistan. You no longer hear of the Biafran Christians, seldom of the Sudanese Christians and never of the Algerian Berber Christians. They are all being systematically terrorized into submission to Islam and the Arabic language. In Southern Sudan, the central government destroys total villages of the Christians, cuts off water supplies, poisons their water wells and denies them access to food. The central government controls the distribution of food, using food handouts as the stick-and-carrot policy to bring the Christians to heel.

There are over eight million Christian Copts in Egypt and over two million Christian Assyrians in Iraq and the neighbouring countries. Their governments deprive them of their basic human rights. Over 25 per cent of the total population of the Sudan is Christian and other religions, while 45 per cent of the people of Nigeria is Christian. The civilized world is engrossed in, not an orderly and coherent manner of humanitarian issues, but rather in matters that enhance its economy, in complicity with the governments in question and multinationals. The Western democratic countries have a moral obligation to re-evaluate their relationship with the Moslem world.

Indigenous Peoples Under the Rule of Islam, Part V

© Frederick P. Isaac.  All Rights Reserved.

Indigenous Peoples Under the Rule of Islam, Part I
Indigenous Peoples Under the Rule of Islam, Part II
Indigenous Peoples Under the Rule of Islam, Part III
Indigenous Peoples Under the Rule of Islam, Part IV
Indigenous Peoples Under the Rule of Islam, Part V
Indigenous Peoples Under the Rule of Islam, Part VI
Assyrians - the Forgotten People Part I, II, III, IV and V

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