Assyrian People
 Home  |  Ads  |  Partners  |  Sponsors  |  Contact  |  FAQs  |  About  
  1935: League of Nations — The Settlement of the Assyrians, a Work of Humanity and Appeasement
   Holocaust  |  History  |  Library  |  People  |  TV-Radio  |  Forums  |  Community  |  Directory
    Assyrian Holocaust  |  Assyrian History Sunday, August 1, 2021 at 5:25 PM in Nineveh, Assyria  
 Assyrian People Assyrian Forums  

 Aramaic-speaking Christian Assyrians from the Middle East.
 Sunday, August 1, 2021 at 5:25 PM in Nineveh, Assyria |  rwt0 0wnynb 0yllb 5:25 - 6771, 1 B0 - 0b4b dx - 0ml4


Dr. Simo Parpola
Professor Simo Parpola
Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times and Today
(original PDF version)


Facing Extinction: Assyrian Christians In Iraq
Erasing Assyrians:
How the KRG Abuses Human Rights, Undermines Democracy, and Conquers Minority Homelands

Defying Deletion: The Fight Over Iraq's Nineveh Plains (film)
Mourning in the Garden of Eden (film)
The Betrayal of the Powerless
Assyrians after the 2003 US Invasion of Iraq

Liberating Iraq: The Untold Story of the Assyrian Christians
Assyrians post-Nineveh
identity, fragmentation, conflict, and survival (672 BC - 1920)
A study of Assyrogenous communities

The Hakkâri Massacres:
Ethnic Cleansing by Turkey 1924-25

The struggle for a free Assyria:
Documents on the Assyro-Chaldean Delegation's Political and Diplomatic Efforts, 1920-21 Vol. I

Biography of RaphaelKhan:
Great Assyrian Leader

From Baghdad with tears to California with Hopes
Ciwardo: Me aṯmël l adyawma, mën hawi? Damografi, Dabara, Sayfo w Goluto (Aramaic [Surayt])
Death of a Nation
The Assyrian Homeland Before World War I
From Bedr Khan to Saddam Hussein (Second Edition, Third Printing)

Assyrians: The Continuous Saga
The Assyrian Question
"Native Christians Massacred": The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians during World War I
Genocide in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq, and Sudan
Indigenous Peoples Under the Rule of Islam
Our Smallest Ally
A Brief Account of the Assyrian Nation during the Great War

The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq
The Crimson Field
Not Even my Name
Mount Semele
Dragons & Violins: A Memoir of War and Music
Assyrians in Contemporary Iraqi Thought by Aprim Shapera
Mechelen aan de Tigris (Assyrian village of Hassana)


The Peshitta: The Holy Bible from the Ancient Eastern Text
The Ecclesiastical Organisation of the Church of the East, 1318-1913
Liturgy, Hymns & Songs of the Assyrian Church of the East
A History of Christianity in Asia : Beginnings to 1500 (2nd Edition)(Vol 1)
From the Holy Mountain (paperback)
From the Holy Mountain (hardcover)
The Church of the East and the Church of England

Related Resources

The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-1916: Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Falloden by Viscount Bryce [Uncensored Edition]
The Young Turks' Crime against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire
Forgotten Fire: Novel on Armenian Genocide Belongs on Jewish Book Shelves
"The German, the Turk and the Devil Made a Triple Alliance": Harpoot Diaries, 1908-1917
Marsovan 1915: The Diaries of Bertha Morley, Second Edition
"Turkish Atrocities": Statements of American Missionaries on the Destruction of Christian Communities in Ottoman Turkey, 1915-1917
Days of Tragedy in Armenia: Personal Experiences in Harpoot, 1915-1917
Ambassador Morgenthau's Story
Great Need over the Water: The Letters of Theresa Huntington Ziegler, Missionary to Turkey, 1898-1905
We Are Witnesses: The Diaries of Five Teenagers Who Died in the Holocaust
The Banality of Indifference


Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times and Today
Assyrians after Assyria
Aramaic Dictionary (online)
Assyrians Beyond the Fall of Nineveh
The Assyrian Heritage: Threads of Continuity and Influence
The Might that was Assyria
Assyrian Dictionary | The Helsinki Neo-Assyrian Dictionary
The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary | Oriental Institute
Oraham's Dictionary
(Aramaic Dictionary)

Modern Aramaic
A Compendious Syriac Dictionary
English-Assyrian-Arabic Dictionary Volumes I and II
Modern Assyrian Language between Speech and Writing: Linguistic Examination
Xëzne d xabre Ordlista: Şurayt-Swedi [mëḏyoyo]
Svensk-nyvästsyrisk Lärobok: Swedi-Şurayt [Ţuroyo]
Gramatik Nacimo: Şurayt-Swedi [Medyoyo]
Boona, the Little Assyrian Boy
Assyrian Illustrated Children's Book: "ܣܲܗܪܵܐ / Sahra / Moon"


Modelling and Simulation of Robot Manipulators: A Parallel Processing Approach


Scholarships, Grants and Prizes 2011

Fine Arts

Antiquities under Siege: Cultural Heritage Protection after the Iraq War
Music Pearls of Beth-Nahrin: An Assyrian / Syriac Discography
Mesopotamain Night: Melodies from the East


Assyrian Cookbook
Mom's Authentic Assyrian Recipes Cookbook

Related booksAssyrian Library

The AssyriansThe Assyrians of today are the indigenous Aramaic-speaking descendants of the ancient Assyrian people, one of the earliest civilizations emerging in the Middle East, and have a history spanning over 6760 years.

Although the Assyrian empire ended in 612 B.C., history is replete with recorded details of the continuous presence of the Assyrian people until the present time.

Assyrians are not Arabian or Arabs, we are not Kurdish, our religion is not Islam.

The Assyrians are the indigenous Aramaic-speaking Christian people of the Middle East, with our own unique language, culture and heritage.

Assyria, the land of the indigenous Assyrians ["Our Smallest Ally"], was partitioned after World War I by the victorious Allies, and is currently under occupation by Kurds, Turks, Arabs and Persians.

The Assyrians are a stateless people and continue to be religiously and ethnically persecuted in the Middle East due to Islamic fundamentalism, Arabization and Kurdification policies, leading to land expropriations and forced emigration to the West.

For more information, please read about Assyrians.

share Home  People  Bibliographies (listed alphabetically) People RSS 2.0 XML feed

Abdulmesih BarAbraham MSc.
Abraham Yohannan Ph.D. (1853-1925)
Professor Albert Zomaya
Dr. Alexander Joseph Oraham (1898-1953)
Dr. Anahit Khosroeva
Anna Eshoo
Aprim Minashe Aprim (1924-2018)
Dr. Arian Ishaya
Ashur Giwargis
Attiya Gamri | Attiya The Assyrian
Bailis Yamlikha Shamun
Father Benny Bethyadgar
Chris Benjamin Andrews
Dr. David B. Perley (1901-1979)
Dinkha Warda
Dr. Donny George Youkhanna (1950-2011)
Dr. Eden Naby (Frye)
Dr. Edward Y. Odisho
Elias YaldaUpdated!
Ewan Gewargis
Farid Nuz'ha (1895-1971)
Francis Sargius
Frederick A. Aprim
Frederick P. Isaac
Dr. Freydun Bet-Oraham Atouraya (1891-1926)
Rev. Gabriel Bar Alexander
Dr. Gabriele Younan
Dr. George M. Lamsa of Mar Bishu (1892-1975)
Hermiz Shahen
Dr. Hirmis Aboona (1940-2009)
Hormuzd Rassam (1826-1910)
Irina Sagradova-Gasparyan
Isaac E. Asia
Issa Benyamin
Ivan Kakovitch
Jacklin Bejan
Jan Bet-Sawoce
Joe David
Rev. John Booko
John D. Yohannan (1911-1997)
Joseph J. Durna (1889-1958)
Joseph Yacoub, Ph.D.
Joshia Khoshaba
Kenny Joseph Evangelist
Konstantine Matveev
Professor Lili Oraham Taymourazi (1900-1992)
Lina Yakubova (1976-2011)
His Holiness, Mar Benyamin Shimun XXI (1887-1918)
His Holiness, Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII (1908-1975)
His Holiness, Mar Kh'nanya Dinkha IV (1935-2015)
Margret George Malik (1941-1969)
Marodeen Ebrahimzadeh
Michael Marogil Mammoo
Milton Malek
Misha Ashourian
Murassa Urshan Daniels (1906-1980)
Naoum Faik (1868-1930)
Narsai M. David
Nebu Issabey
Ninos AhoUpdated!
Ninos Ternian
Nimrod Simono
Dr. Norman Solhkhah
Rev. Paul S. Nweeya (1885-1961)
Paul Younan
Phillip Bet Oshana (1921-1976)
Dr. Racho Donef
Rakhe Rachel Maksud (1910-2009)
Ronald Michael, M.D.
Rose Sargis (1914-2010)
Rosie Malek-Yonan
Sabri Atman
Rev. Samuel Dinkha
Sarah Sayad Paz (1910-1998)
Sargon O. Dadesho, Ph.D.
Shmuel Shamasha Baboo (1915-2011)
Professor Simo ParpolaUpdated!
Tobia Gewargis
Wilfred Bet-Alkhas
William Daniel
William Ishaya Odisho
William Y. Mikhail
William Pirouyon, Ph.D.
Yosip Bassoo
Younadam Yousef Kanna
Younan Namato Younan (1910-2016)
Yousif Sarhad Jammo (1892-1965)
Yusif Malek (1899-1959)
Zaya S. Younan

Assyrian ForumsAssyrian Forums
PeoplePeople Archives

 Home  People  Assyrians

Assyrian Forums  

Assyrians — a historical summary

The Assyrians of today are the indigenous Aramaic-speaking descendants of the ancient Assyrian people, one of the earliest civilizations emerging in the Middle East, and have a history spanning over 6760 years.  Assyrians are not Arabian or Arabs, we are not Kurdish, our religion is not Islam.  The Assyrians are Christian, with our own unique language, culture and heritage.  Although the Assyrian empire ended in 612 B.C., history is replete with recorded details of the continuous presence of the Assyrian people until the present time.  

The Assyrian kingdom, being one of the base roots of Mesopotamia, encouraged urbanization, building of permanent dwellings, and cities. They also developed agriculture and improved methods of irrigation using systems of canals and aqueducts.  They enhanced their language that served as a unifying force in writing, trade and business transaction.  They encouraged trade, established and developed safe routes, protecting citizens and property by written law.  They excelled in administration, documented their performance and royal achievements, depicting their culture in different art forms.  They built libraries and archived their recorded deeds for prosperity.  They accumulated wealth and knowledge; raised armies in disciplined formation of infantry, cavalry and war-chariot troops with logistics; and built a strong kingdom, an unique civilization and the first world empire.

The heartland of Assyria lays in present day northern Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and northwestern Iran.  The remains of the ancient capital of Assyria, Nineveh, is next to Mosul in northern Iraq.

Prior to the Assyrian Holocaust which occurred before, during and after World War I, the major Assyrian communities still inhabited the areas of Harran, Edessa, Tur Abdin, and Hakkari in southeastern Turkey, Jazira in northeastern Syria, Urmia in northwestern Iran, and Mosul in northern Iraq as they had for thousands of years.

Middle East: Assyria

The world’s 4 million Assyrians are currently dispersed with members of the Diaspora comprising nearly one-third of the population.  Most of the Assyrians in the Diaspora live in North America, Europe and Australia with nearly 460,000 residing in the United States of America.  The remaining Assyrians reside primarily in Iraq and Syria, with smaller populations in Turkey, Iran, Lebanon, and Jordan.

The Assyrians are not to be confused with Syrians even though some Syrian citizens are Assyrian.  Although the name of Syria is directly derived from Assyria and Syria was an integral part of Assyrian civilization, most of the people of Syria currently maintain a separate Arab identity.  Moreover, the Assyrians are not Arabs but rather have maintained a continuous and distinct ethnic identity, language, culture, and religion that predates the Arabization of the Near East.  In addition, unlike the Arabs who did not enter the region until the seventh century A.D., the Assyrians are the indigenous people of Mesopotamia.  Until today, the Assyrians speak a distinct language (called Aramaic [Syriac]), the actual language spoken by Jesus Christ.  As a Semitic language, the Aramaic language is related to Hebrew and Arabic but predates both.  In addition, whereas most Arabs are Muslim, Assyrians are essentially Christian.

The Assyrians were among the first to accept Christianity in the first century A.D. through the Apostle St. Thomas.  Despite the subsequent Islamic conquest of the region in the seventh century A.D., the Church of the East flourished and its adherents at one time numbered in the tens of millions.  Assyrian missionary zeal was unmatched and led to the first Christian missions to China, Japan, and the Philippines.  The Church of the East stele in Xian, China bears testament to a thriving Assyrian Christian Church as early as in the seventh century A.D. Early on, the Assyrian Church divided into two ancient branches, the Syrian Orthodox Church and the Church of the East.  Over time, divisions within these Assyrian Churches led to the establishment of the Chaldean Church (Uniate Catholic), Syrian Catholic Church, and Maronite Church.  Persistent persecution under Islamic occupation led to the migration of still greater numbers of Assyrian Christians into the Christian autonomous areas of Mount Lebanon as well.  With the arrival of Western Protestant and Catholic missionaries into Mesopotamia, especially since the nineteenth century, several smaller congregations of Assyrian Protestants arose as well.  A direct consequence of Assyrian adherence to the Christian faith and their missionary enterprise has been persecution, massacres, and ethnic cleansing by various waves of non-Christian neighbors which ultimately led to a decimation of the Assyrian Christian population. Most recently and tragically, Great Britain invited the Assyrians as an ally in World War I.  The autonomous Assyrians were drawn into the conflict following successive massacres against the civilian population by forces of the Turkish Ottoman Empire, Kurds, Arabs and Persians.  Although many geopolitical and economic factors were involved in provoking the attacks against the Assyrians, a jihad or holy war was declared and served as the rallying cry and vehicle for marauding Turks, Kurds, and Persians.  Although the Muslim holy war against the Armenians is perhaps better known, over three-fourths, or 750,000 Assyrian Christians were also killed between 1843-1945 during the Assyrian Holocaust.

The conflict and subsequent Assyrian Holocaust led to the decimation and dispersal of the Assyrians.  Those Assyrians who survived the Holocaust were driven out of their ancestral homeland in Turkish Mesopotamia primarily toward the area of Mosul Vilayet in Iraq, Jazira in Syria, and the Urmi plains of Iran where large Assyrian populations already lived.  The massacres of 1915 followed the Assyrians to these areas as well, prompting an exodus of many more Assyrians to other countries and continents.  The Assyrian Holocaust of 1915 is the turning point in the modern history of the Assyrian Christians precisely because it is the single event that led to the dispersal of the surviving community into small, weak, and destitute communities.

Most Assyrians in the Diaspora today can trace their emigration from the Middle East to the Assyrian Holocaust of 1915.  Many, who fled from their original homes into other Middle Eastern countries subsequently, just one generation later, once more emigrated to the West.  Thus, many Assyrian families in the West today have experienced transfer to a new country for three successive generations beginning, for instance, from Turkey to Iraq and then to the United States.Assyrians

During World War I, after the Assyrians ["Our Smallest Ally"] sided with the victorious Allies, Great Britain had promised the Assyrians autonomy, independence, and a homeland.  The Assyrian question was addressed during postwar deliberations at the League of Nations.  However, with the termination of the British Mandate in Iraq, the unresolved status of the Assyrians was relinquished to the newly formed Iraqi government with promises of certain minority guarantees specifically concerning freedom of religious, cultural, and linguistic expression.  The Assyrians lost two-thirds of their population during the World Wars.

The Simele Genocide (Syriac: ܦܪܡܬܐ ܕܣܡܠܐ: Premta d-Simele) was the first of many massacres committed by the Iraqi government during the systematic genocide of Assyrians of Northern Iraq in August 1933. The term is used to describe not only the massacre of Simele, but also the killing spree that continued among 63 Assyrian villages in the Dohuk and Mosul districts that led to the deaths of an estimated 3,000 innocent Assyrians.  Today, most of these villages continue to be illegally occupied by Arabs and Kurds.

Currently, the Assyrians are religiously and ethnically persecuted in the Middle East due to Islamic fundamentalism, Arabization and Kurdification policies, leading to land expropriations and forced emigration to the West.

Related Information

Historical timeline from 1915 to the 1958 Iraqi Revolution detailing the plight and suffering of the Assyrians

1937: The Assyrians: A Debt of Honour
1935: League of Nations — The Settlement of the Assyrians, a Work of Humanity and Appeasement
ANNEMASSE: The Assyrian Tragedy, February 1934. | Assyrian National Petition

Assyrian Holocaust

Assyrian History Timeline:  1900's | 1800's
      (historical documents, letters and articles)

Armenian, Assyrian and Hellenic Genocide News
      (current genocide news information)

Assyria \ã-'sir-é-ä\ n (1998)   1:  an ancient empire of Ashur   2:  a democratic state in Bet-Nahren, Assyria (northern Iraq, northwestern Iran, southeastern Turkey and eastern Syria.)   3:  a democratic state that fosters the social and political rights to all of its inhabitants irrespective of their religion, race, or gender   4:  a democratic state that believes in the freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture in faithfulness to the principles of the United Nations Charter — Atour synonym

Ethnicity, Religion, Language
» Israeli, Jewish, Hebrew
» Assyrian, Christian, Aramaic
» Saudi Arabian, Muslim, Arabic
Assyrian \ã-'sir-é-an\ adj or n (1998)   1:  descendants of the ancient empire of Ashur   2:  the Assyrians, although representing but one single nation as the direct heirs of the ancient Assyrian Empire, are now doctrinally divided, inter sese, into five principle ecclesiastically designated religious sects with their corresponding hierarchies and distinct church governments, namely, Church of the East, Chaldean, Maronite, Syriac Orthodox and Syriac Catholic.  These formal divisions had their origin in the 5th century of the Christian Era.  No one can coherently understand the Assyrians as a whole until he can distinguish that which is religion or church from that which is nation -- a matter which is particularly difficult for the people from the western world to understand; for in the East, by force of circumstances beyond their control, religion has been made, from time immemorial, virtually into a criterion of nationality.   3:  the Assyrians have been referred to as Aramaean, Aramaye, Ashuraya, Ashureen, Ashuri, Ashuroyo, Assyrio-Chaldean, Aturaya, Chaldean, Chaldo, ChaldoAssyrian, ChaldoAssyrio, Jacobite, Kaldany, Kaldu, Kasdu, Malabar, Maronite, Maronaya, Nestorian, Nestornaye, Oromoye, Suraya, Syriac, Syrian, Syriani, Suryoye, Suryoyo and Telkeffee. — Assyrianism verb

Aramaic \ar-é-'máik\ n (1998)   1:  a Semitic language which became the lingua franca of the Middle East during the ancient Assyrian empire.   2:  has been referred to as Neo-Aramaic, Neo-Syriac, Classical Syriac, Syriac, Suryoyo, Swadaya and Turoyo.

AIM | Atour: The State of Assyria | Terms of Service